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A Brief History of Marine Biology
Transcript of A Brief History of Marine Biology
Francisco Explored all the oceans and began making scientific observations
Chronometer: clock that is precise enough to be used as a portable time standard, allowing one to accurately determine longitude Ancient Marine History Middle Ages History Age of Exploration Birth of Marine Sciences Modern Marine Biology The Phoenicians The Polynesians The Greeks Pytheas Eratosthenes Aristotle Ptolemy The first accomplished sea travelers & traders in the West
Alphabet is of particular importance The first regular, long-distance, open-ocean seafarers 3200 to 2500 B.C. 1200 to 800 B.C. 2000 to 500 B.C. 380 to 310 B.C. 276 to 194 B.C. 384 to 322 B.C. 90 A.D. to 168 The Egyptians Earliest recorded sea voyages
Earliest known seafaring crafts Predicted tides by studying the moon
Figured out how far north or south one was by using the North Star 1st marine biologist
Described many forms of sea life Calculated Earth’s circumference
Invented the first latitude / longitude system 1st sphere map on flat paper
Improved latitude & longitude system Latitude
"Parallells" running east / west
Equator = O degrees
Poles = 90 degrees Longitude
Intersecting meridians that end at the poles
Prime Meridian = 0 degrees
Opposite side = 180 degrees A Brief History of Marine Biology Raided, explored, & traded
Leif Eriksson lands in Newfoundland (1000 A.D). 995 AD Voyaged to E Africa, SE Asia, & India
Figured out wind patterns & currents (including monsoons) Trade routes with Japan, Korea, Australia, & Africa by 1000 A.D.
First people to understand magnetism & use compasses
Developed central rudders & watertight compartments The Vikings The Arabs The Chinese 790 A.D. to 1100 1000 A.D. to 1400 700 A.D. to 1300 Christopher Columbus Ferdinand Magellan Age of Exploration Rediscovers America's in 1492 1451 A.D. to 1506 First person to sail around the world 1480 A.D. to 1521 15th Century - 17th Century A.D. James Cook Edward Forbes U.S. Exploring
Expedition Matthew Maury Charles Darwin H.M.S. Challenger 1728 A.D. to 1779 Dredged ocean floor & discovered new sea creatures
Among the 1st to investigate the distribution of marine life 1815 A.D. to 1854 AKA: Wilkes Expedition
Five ships that explored the southern & central Pacific oceans
Confirmed Antarctica is a continent
Included scientists & illustrators 1838 A.D. to 1842 Father of Oceanography
U.S. naval officer who wrote "The Physical Geography of the Sea"
Among 1st to envision worldwide patterns for surface winds and currents (ocean highways) 1806 A.D. to 1873 Studied plankton & described the formation of coral reef atolls 1809 A.D. to 1882 Gathered biological, chemical, geological & physical data
Discovered Mid-Atlantic Ridge & Marianas Trench & over 4700 new species
50+ volumes (29,500 pages); taking 23 years to publish 1872 A.D. to 1876 Steam Engines / Iron Ships Laboratories German Meteor U.S.S. Atlantis H.M.S. Challenger II Submersible: Bathysphere Submersible: Bathyscaphe Hard Hat Diving SCUBA Diving Hardsuit Diving RV FLIP Ship Submersibles Crittercams ROV's AUV's LORAN-C / GPS Satellites / Remote Sensing Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole (Massachusetts) is established in 1888 1888 - 1924 The Scripps Institution of Oceanography is established (La Jolla, CA ) in 1924 1925 1931 Improved trade and oceanography because sea travel no longer required wind Considered the 1st modern oceanographic research cruise
Crossed Atlantic 14X, gathering biological, chemical, geological, & physical data
Used echo soundings to create 1st detailed ocean floor map 1st ship designed & built for ocean exploration
Confirmed the existence of the mid-Atlantic ridge and mapped it Used SONAR to map ocean floors in the Atlantic, Indian, & Pacific oceans
Discovered the Marianas Trench (Challenger Deep - 35,558 feet deep) 1951 - 1953 Means "deep sphere"
Developed by William Beebe & Otis Barton
Dove 2170 feet off Bermuda in 1932 Means "Deep boat"
Operate like blimps but use bouyant liquid ; limited horizontal mobility
Trieste dives to bottom Challenger Deep (36000 feet) Developed by Augustus Siebe
Good for underwater labor, limited for underwater research 1932 1960 1840 1878 - 1943 1870's SCUBA: Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus
Developed during WWII by Emile Gagnan & Jacques Cousteau
First time one could practically study in the marine environment Protect the diver from temperature and pressure and allow deeper diving (the limitations of SCUBA)
More portable than submersible (though you cannot go as deep) 1913 Modern Scientific Ship - FLIP
Floating Instrument Platform
Operated by Scripps Institute Alvin operated by Woods Hole & owned by U.S. Navy, is considered the world's most productive Small package of instruments including a camera that can be attached to a wild animal to study its behavior in the wild. Remotely Operated Vehicles
Useful for both SCUBA and submersible assistance 1962 1970's 1950's 1980's 2000's 1960's / 1990's Today Autonomous Underwater Vehicles LOng RAnge Navigation used radio signal transmissions along the coast for electronic navigation
Limited deployment and range of accuracy decreased with distance
Global Positioning System uses satellites
Accuracy within 3-6 feet for navigation Satellites provide global, continuous monitoring of the oceans
Remote Sensing allows for global study of the oceans (global circulation & climate change)