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How to teach children writing? A guide for pre-service teacher. Qian ye

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Qian Ye

on 5 May 2014

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Transcript of How to teach children writing? A guide for pre-service teacher. Qian ye

First, you should know

When children begin writing, they can tell more complex stories than they can write(Hill,2012, P312).
Because learning to write involves learning to use a pencil.
To hold it properly.
And create letters, words and sentences to convey meaning to others
If we start at the beginning of children's writing we can make better understand of what message they want to communicate as they learn to write.
The sign principle-
they know this means chips and hamburgers
The flexible principle-they learn that a letter can be written in several ways.
The linear principle-they learn that English is written from left to right in lines.
Spaces between words-they learn that where one word ends and another begins.
Stages on children's writing
Beginning writing
In this stage, children's writing can occur in large circle shapes or in scribble-like lines that may proceed from left to right.
Early-emergent writing
In this stage, children may explore the use of symbols-either drawings or letters-to represent words.
Emergent writing
When children arrive this stage, they begins to create letter-like shapes.
Early writing
In this stage, children continue to create or invent spelling of words.
Transitional writing
In transitional stage, quality not quality becomes apparent.
Extending writing
There is punctuation and the writing resembles that of an adult in this stage.
Writing and reading support each other
Assessing writing
Children's writing provides a window into their thinking and problem-solving(Hill,2012, P321).
Assessing emergent and early writing
Three main elements
development of
The lines and forms are not random-they have purpose and meaning (Kissel, 2009).
- A guide for pre-service teacher
How to teach children writing?
It's over there.
The blue book was on the table.
Children may learn the differences between the language they speak and the language they write down.
It's over there.
The development of writing
Children discover English in the following ways.
Writing and multimodal literacies
In recent years, teachers begun to recognize that students learn best when they read and compose in multiple ways, when they use multimodalities to identify new and effective forms of literacy (podcasts, digital video, audio essays)(Selfe & Selfe, 2008, p. 84).
Teaching strategies
Teachers can use this strategies to promote writing with children.
However,this strategy lacks a distinctive point of view or evidence of reflection upon ideas. Children may sometimes produce powerful writing about topics which particularly interest them(Galbraith & Rijlaarsdam, 1999, p. 95).
Teacher modelling
The teacher selects a text based on her knowledge of the children-what they know and what they need to know about the text.
(Hill, 2012, pp. 334-337)
In this strategy, teachers can make to improve the information, organisation and ideas in writings through model the process of writing, talking about the decisions.
(Hill, 2012, p. 335)
Modelled Writing
In the video, the teacher took a piece of paper and wrote down all the writing technique she wanted to teach.
like the rhyming phrases:
gentle soft
feeling happy

Meanwhile the teacher talked aloud about the decisions she made like:"I am going to call 'The spring is...'now..." and "I am going to think what is spring for me" to improve the information and ideas in that piece of writing.
Shared and interactive writing
In this strategy, writing involve the children as participants in the writing process.
Shared writing
Teacher holds the pen and the children are invited to contribute ideas for the writing.
The same video
stop at 6:06
Now, focus on how to arrange a writing class
children to
In the "we do" part, the teacher first wrote down"spring is..." on the paper. And then she ask student what spring is and wrote down the students on the paper.
Interactive writing
Teacher and students share the pen, both participating in constructing the text.
"Use of interactive writing with teacher modeling and problem-solving discourse appears to support children’s early acquisition of print concepts, phonological, and alphabetic knowledge."
(Craig, 2006, p. 716)
Through pen sharing, children can learn writing through observing the teacher's model.
However, it may not provide adequate participation as children acquire greater knowledge of print concepts, phoneme segmentation, and letter-sound correspondences.
Once children reach a particular level of development, they may benefit more from an adapted form of interactive writing where children improve their involvement in the problem-solving phase of writing.
(Craig, 2006, p. 716)
interactive writing
The use of invented spelling during writing accelerates kindergarten children’s acquisition of phonemic awareness and spelling knowledge.
(Craig, 2006, p. 716)
In this strategy, writing involves the children writing in pairs, small groups or as individuals and finally every students' complete small sections will be put together later as a whole class production.
Guided writing
Young writers need instruction. They do not improve their writing skills simply because teachers require them to write(Gibson, 2008).
Independent writing
In a close teacher-child relationship, the teacher values his/her relationship with the child and feels in tune with the child’s feelings. The child may seek comfort from the teacher when upset and is described as eager to share exciting news with the teacher(White, 2012, p. 167).

In a conflictual relationship, the teacher generally feels anxious or frustrated when interacting with the child. The teacher may struggle to connect with the child and may feel unable to help the child out of a difficult mood(White, 2012, p. 167).

Independent writing is where child write on topics of their choice with little support of teacher.
Language experience
Based on the following principles:
-What I can think I can say
-What I can say can be written down by myself or by others
-What is written down can be read by me and by others
The writing conference
It is a way for the teacher to help a child improve their writing during guided and independent writing.
Individual conferences
Three kinds of questions
Group conferences
For a group of children have similar problem or the teacher wants to teach an aspect of writing to the whole class.
Publishing conference
Teacher may move around the classroom conferencing with children as they go.
It is concerned with talking about how to share the writing with others.
Spoken and written language
Teacher-child relationship
Guided Writing
Guided writing is based on Vygosky's idea that learning cannot be separated from its social context. Peers assist and support the learning process.
(Hill, 2012)
(Hill, 2012)&(Gibson, 2008)
However, it is not simply a peer support matter, it is more about collaboration(Hill, 2012).

All writing is collaborative. Effective writing teachers collaborate with students, creating apprenticeships for them through guided practice (Englert, Mariage, & Dunsmore, 2006).
Thus, writing instruction
should include explicit teaching in which teachers
step in to model and prompt and then step back to encourage students to make decisions and solve problems while writing (Gibson, 2008).
Through shared journal, students learn to be careful observers of their own lives, becoming watchful of experiences that can be used as a topic for writing(Tunks, 2012).
Shared journal
Shared journal is a daily literacy strategy in which children orally share and write about their real-life experiences with their class community.
A guided writing lesson
The theoretical basis for shared journal is Piaget’s constructivist learning theory-that is, the belief that individuals construct their own knowledge through interactions with their surroundings, objects, and other people(Tunks, 2012).
Step1: Brief, Shared Experience
Step 2: Discussion of Strategic Behavior for Writing
Step 3: Students’ Time to Write Individually With Immediate Guidance From the Teacher
Step 4: Connecting Students’ Immediate Writing to an Audience
Provide a Strong, Supportive Introduction.
The introductory section of guided writing lessons should (1) expand students’ interest and orient them to the writing task, and (2) provide opportunities for students to hear and use the language structures needed for their writing.
Engage Writers in Conversation and Rehearsal.
Describe Writing Strategies to Students.
Describe Writing Strategies to Students.
Provide Immediate Guidance for What Students
Are Writing Next.
Scaffold Students’ Writing Through Prompting.
Provide Lots of “Just Right” Help as Soon as Students Struggle.
Writers need an audience. Young writers typically dedicate significant attention to transcription and need to experience their own newly written texts as a whole(Gibson, 2008, p. 330).
by Qian Ye
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