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medicines

chemistry ch5 form5
by

yayangyaya ebuomel

on 16 July 2013

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Transcript of medicines

MEDICINES
TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
Medicines that are obtained without the involvement of chemical substances in chemical reactions.
Side effects of medicine
Aspirin : this drug is acidic. it can cause stomach bleeding and stomach ulsers. some people are allergic to it.it can cause asthma attacks for some people.
Animals,plants and minerals
garlic
Used to treat colds and asthma.
Lowers blood pressure.
Also has antibiotic properties.
cocaine
This drug is processed from the leaves of Erythrozylan cocoa trees. Often used as a local anaesthetic.
ginseng
Its roots are used to make drinks so as to strengthen the body.
quinine
Produced from the bark of the cinchona trees. Used to treat malaria.
ginger
Both leaves and rhizomes are used to treat stomach wind and reduce belching.
It is believed that eating ginger will help the prevention of catching a cold.
mint
Increase the body metabolism.
Help us to sweat.
tongkat ali
scientific name : eurycoma longifolia
It can act as an aphrodisiac.
Often used :
to lessen stomach pain
as a tonic for women who have just given birth
to treat wounds and relieve headaches
to lower the body temperature of patients with a high body temperature
aloe vera
Juices in their leaves are used to treat itchy skin and burns
lemons/oranges
Drinking it will help to cure abscess and boils also skin problems. A mixture of lemon juice, tea and honey helps to cure colds.
lemon grass
Its leaves are used to treat cough and exhaustion.
pegaga
Scientific name : centella asiatica
its leaves are used as herbal tea.
provides extra vitality,increase brain power and concentration,improve blood circulation,helps to reduce weight and is used for the treatment of rheumatism and arthritis
Antipsychotic drug : most of them are sedative. patients may gain weight. some of these drugs are addictive. other side effects are headaches, confusion and high rate of heartbeat.
Amphetamine : it is an additive drug if it is used for a long time. it can cause aggressiveness and suspicious thinking. some may develop insomnia.
Barbiturate : they are addictive drug if used for a long period of time. over dosage can cause death.
Penicilin : some patients are allergic to it.in some serioes cases, patients can go into a coma.
MODERN MEDICINES
ANALGESICS
Used to relieve pain.
Can be :
Opiates : internal pain
Non-opiates : external pain
Aspirin
Chemical name : acetylsalicylic acid
Derived from the white willow tree called salix alba.
Tastes bitter
Used to lessen aches and pains, reduces inflammation and fever.
Regular use recommended for people with a risk of heart attack, thrombosis and stroke.
May cause stomach bleeding, kidney damage and hearing defects.
Aspirin is no longer considered suitable for children under 12 because of its suspected link with a rare diseases called Reye's Syndrome
New version of aspirin without side effects : superaspirins
Paracetamol
Particularly effective for relieving musculoskeletal pain.
As effective as aspirin in reducing temperature for high fever.
Less irritating to the stomach, however it has some anti-inflammatory action.
Overdossage can cause severe liver and kidney damage
Codeine
It is a pain killer made from opium
Often used to relieve mild to moderate pain.
It also suppresses the cough centre of the brain. Thus it is often used as a cough mixture.
More effective than aspirin or paracetamol.
This drug is less toxic and less addictive than morphine.
High dosage of this drug can cause blurring of sight, drunkness characteristics and confusion.
ANTIBIOTICS
Form a group of drug that can kill or prevent the growth of bacteria.
Made by living organisms such as fungi and bacteria.
Earliest antibiotic discovered was penicilin.
Broad spectrum antibiotics are one that can kill a wide range of bacteria - ciprofloxacin.
PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC DRUGS
Drugs that affect the central nervous system.
Used to treat some psychiatric and neucological problems
Stimulants
Substances that act on the brain to increase the reaction of nervous system.
Thus taking stimulants can increase alertness.
Also increases our confidence in doing things.
Our body has a natural stimulant called adrenaline produced by the adrenal gland.
Stimulants also increase the heartbeat so as to help the body to prepare for any emergency
They are also habit-forming.
Treat obesity and a disease called narcolepsy.
Amphetamine
Or "speed" is a powerful synthetic stimulant
Benzedrine was the earliest amphetamine. It was used as a 'pep pill' in WW2 to help soldiers overcome fatigue.
Prescribed by doctors as an appetite suppressant to help patients to lose weight.
Also used as an antidepressant to induce euphoria.
Seldom used today because of the severe side effects which includes addiction.
Cocaine
An alkaloid compound extracted from the leaves of the cocoa trees.
Used as local anaesthetic agent.
Cocaine is both toxic and addictive.
Its use as a stimulant is illegal.
Long term use may cause mental and physical problems.
Antidepressants
Drugs used to reduce depression for depressed patients.
Used to treat psychotic disease such as
severe unnecessary worry.
continuous stress.
panic.
gloominess
They produce serious side effects.
Barbiturate
commonly known as sleeping pill.
It is a sedative and a hypnotic drug that works by depressing the brain activity.
If taken for a long time, increasingly large doses are required to induce sleep.
The action of barbiturate will last for hours or days.
This may cause patients to be confused and aggressive.
Over dosage can cause death.
Short-acting barbiturates are used as anaesthetics to induce general anaesthesia.
Most are highly addictive.They are very seldom prescribed and are listed as controlled substance.
Tranquiliser
Common name for any drug that can reduce anxiety or tension.
it is an antidepressant drug.
Benzodiazepine is a common tranquiliser prescribed by doctors.
The use of drugs to control anxiety is becoming much less popular because most of these drugs are addictive.
Overdose can cause death.
Antipsychotics
These are drugs that are used to treat the symptoms of severe mental disorders.
A psychotic patient is usually not aware of reality.
He may hear voices that instruct him or her to do certain things.
Often they suspect someone is able to read his or her mind.
Psychotic patients can become angry easily, are non-communicative and very dirty. Sometimes they talk to themselves.
The severe form of psychotic illness is known as schizophrenia.
They cannot think logically and act inappropriately.
Three major series of drugs that have been used successfully in the treatment of schizophrenia are
reserpine
phenothiazines
butyrophenones
Prolonged use can serious movement disorders that resemble Parkinson's disease.
Toxic to the liver, heart and bone marrow.
HORMONES AND STEROIDS
Produced by endocrine secretion in the body
Insulin is one of the hormones produced from cells of the pancreas.
It regulates the amount of sugar in the blood.
Without insulin, the amount of sugar will increase and cause diabetes mellitus.
Steroids are drugs that are grouped as anabolic steroids and corticosteroids.
One example is cortisone. It is used for treating a variety of skin problems ,asthma and arthritis.
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Full transcript