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speech act theory
Transcript of speech act theory
- referring is a type of propositional act Example: The black cat - is a propositional act (something is referenced, but no communication may be intended) 2.Illocutionary act: the performance of an act in saying something
: the idea of an illocutionary act can be captured by emphasizing that
"by saying something, we do something" Examples: informing, ordering, warning, undertaking. promises, questions
: when someone issues an order to someone to go by saying "Go!"
: when a minister joins two people in marriage saying,
"I now pronounce you husband and wife." 3. Perlocutionary acts: Speech acts that have an effect on the feelings, thoughts or actions of either the speaker or the listener. In other words, they seek to change minds! Unlike locutionary acts, perlocutionary acts are external to the performance.
Examples: inspiring, persuading or deterring. I identified five classifications of illocutionary/perlocutionary speech acts: 1.assertives = speech acts that commit a speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition
Example: reciting a creed 2.directives = speech acts that are to cause the hearer to take a particular action.
Examples: requests, commands and advice 3.commissives = speech acts that commit a speaker to some future action
Examples: promises and oaths 4.expressives = speech acts that express the speaker's attitudes and emotions towards the proposition
Examples: congratulations, excuses and thanks 5.declaratives = speech acts that change the reality in accord with the proposition of the declaration
Examples: baptisms, pronouncing someone guilty or pronouncing someone husband and wife Searle believes that speakers perform acts by observing two types of rules: 1.constitutive rules or definition rules- create or define new forms of behavior
2.regulative or behavior rules- these rules govern types of behavior that already exist. Other Examples:
The black cat is stupid - is an assertive illocutionary act (it intends to communicate).
Please find the black cat - is a directive perlocutionary act (it seeks to change behaviour). End...