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Examples of client-server

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Daria Korżel

on 21 January 2016

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Transcript of Examples of client-server

Examples of client-server
architecture systems

Description
Client
is a program that runs on the computer which the user access (often a desktop PC or an online access computer). Each client provides an interface to each of the services (databases, online files, e-mail, etc.) that are made available by other systems which are called
servers
.
Client-server
computing architecture

Client computer:
is often managed by a user of the server’s services,
who is not a computer expert
sends message(s)/requests to the server
on which results are prepared and displayed

Server computer:
is often managed by a computer expert
on which information and/or a service resides
on which information is prepared for the client
Examples
Benefits
The user needs to know a smaller number of user interfaces, when more than one server can be accessed by the same client, compared with the case when every system offers its own interface

When more than one client is available for a type of server, then the user can make a choice and work with the interface offered by that particular client software, which is well adapted to his/her situation, knowledge and experienc
Is an open-source relational database management system developed by Oracle. In July 2013, it was the world's second most widely used RDBMS, and the most widely used open-source client–server model RDBMS. MySQL is a popular choice of database for use in web applications, and is a central component of the widely used LAMP open source web application software stack (and other "AMP" stacks)
MySQL
Main Features
stored procedures
triggers
views
cursors
partitioning of tables
task scheduler

The latest version 5.6 introduces several important changes to improve the scalability and reliability of the environment and implementing innovative solutions:

semi-synchronous replication
multi-threaded replication
enhanced monitoring capabilities through the so-called. PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA
API type NoSQL using memcached
Available Platforms
The MySQL server is available for all popular platforms, and various processor architectures:

Linux (x86, S/390, IA64 (Itanium), Alpha, PowerPC, AMD64 / EM64T),
Windows (x86, x64),
Solaris (SPARC, x86),
FreeBSD (x86),
MacOS X,
HP-UX (PA-RISC IA64),
AIX (RS6000),
i5/OS (IBM System I),
QNX (x86),
Novell NetWare (x86),
SGI,
DEC OSF
MySQL provides various types of database mechanisms, each type is used for other applications. These are among others:

MyISAM - mechanism that does not support transactions or even foreign keys, allows the while (unlike the other types) full-text search
MEMORY - the fastest, because everything is stored in the RAM. However, it has several limitations, including not storing the data when you turn off the MySQL server
InnoDB - one of the most common mechanism of support, transactions, establishment of row-level locking, foreign keys
BerkeleyDB - handles transactions, as yet not fully integrated with MySQL
MERGE - allows you to connect MyISAM tables
FEDERATED - allows you to create distributed database
CSV - stores data in standard CSV files
ARCHIVE - stores data in compressed archives, only allows adding and retrieving records
Pbxt - mechanism developed by an external company, available as a plugin, similar action to PostgreSQL
Types of supported database mechanisms
Firebird
Firebird is an open source SQL relational database management system that runs on Linux, Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and a variety of Unix.
Full support for stored procedures and triggers
Full ACID compliant transactions
Referential integrity
Multi Generational Architecture (sometimes called MVCC)
Support for External Functions (UDFs)
SQL activity can send asynchronous notification events to clients
Third-party tools, including GUI administrative tools and replication tools
Careful writes - fast recovery, no need for transaction logs
Many access methods: native/API, dbExpress/FireDAC drivers, ODBC, OLE DB, .NET provider, JDBC native type 4 driver, Python module, PHP, Perl
Incremental backups
Full cursor implementation in PSQL
Main Features
Available Platforms
Firebird supports a number of hardware and software platforms: Windows, Linux, MacOS, HP-UX, AIX, Solaris and more. It runs on at x386, x64 and PowerPC, Sparc and other hardware platforms, and supports an easy migration mechanism between these platforms. Firebird is included into the following Linux repositories: Fedora, OpenSuse, CentOS, Mandriva, Ubuntu.
Standard security
Users and roles
GRANT/REVOKE on main operations
Database owner concept

Windows Trusted Authentication
Single-sign on for end-users
Integration with Windows domain/Active Directory security

Network
The only network port should be open (3050 by default, configurable)
Aliases (path to the database is not exposed)
Security
Examples
IBM DB2
IBM DB2 - relational data server. These products all support the relational model, but in recent years some products have been extended to support object-relational features and non-relational structures like JSON and XML.
Main Features
compressed recording format of DB2 largely saves space on the disk arrays with little overhead associated with the use of an extra processor
tests for production data are, on average 60-80% compression rate, meaning that the occupation of the database tables is reduced by about three times compared to the uncompressed format
implemented in DB2 v9 database model combines the features of a purely relational systems and dedicated systems as XML
the hierarchical manner of storage of XML documents - pureXML
languages XQuery, XPath, and SQL / XML allowing the native search of XML documents
increase of the capacity for the amount of data stored in one table
easier management boards with a huge amount of data
optimizing SQL queries to obtain results
gaining the possibility of a quick disconnect (roll-out) and append (roll-in) datasets
IBM has extended DB2 v9 database engine on a mechanism Workload Manager (WLM), which aims to increase comfort of work by supporting and automating management tasks priorities
Technical Information
DB2
can be administered from either the command-line or a GUI. The command-line interface requires more knowledge of the product but can be more easily scripted and automated. The GUI is a multi-platform Java client that contains a variety of wizards suitable for novice users. DB2 supports both SQL and XQuery. DB2 has native implementation of XML data storage, where XML data is stored as XML (not as relational data or CLOB data) for faster access using XQuery.

DB2
has APIs for REXX, PL/I, COBOL, RPG, FORTRAN, C++, C, Delphi, .NET CLI, Java, Python, Perl, PHP, Ruby, and many other programming languages. DB2 also supports integration into the Eclipse and Visual Studio integrated development environments.
An important feature of DB2 computer programs is error handling. The SQL communications area (SQLCA) structure was once used exclusively within a DB2 program to return error information to the application program after every SQL statement was executed. The primary, but not singularly useful, error diagnostic is held in the field SQLCODE within the SQLCA block.

The SQL return code values are:

0 means successful execution.
A positive number means successful execution with one or more warnings. An example is +100, which means no rows found.
A negative number means unsuccessful with an error. An example is -911, which means a lock timeout (or deadlock) has occurred, triggering a rollback.
Error processing
PostgreSQL
PostgreSQL - is an object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) with an emphasis on extensibility and standards-compliance.
Available Platforms
PostgreSQL runs on the following operating systems: Linux (all recent distributions), Windows (Win2000 SP4 and later), FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, Mac OS X, AIX, BSD / OS, HP-UX, IRIX, openindiana, Open Solaris, SCO OpenServer , SCO UnixWare, Solaris, and Tru64 Unix.

In 2012,. Support for the following systems have been removed: DG / UX, NeXTSTEP, SunOS 4, SVR4, Ultrix 4 and UNIVEL.

Most other Unix systems also should work.
Main Features
Functions:
In the same base, you can write stored procedures in different programming languages. By default, there are:
PL / pgSQL, similar to a procedural language PL / SQL in Oracle database;
PL / Python;
PL / Perl;
PL / Tcl;
SQL (procedure is a series of parameterized SQL statements).
Indexes:
In PostgreSQL has a built-in support of many types of indices, which includes: B-tree, hash, R-tree, GiST, SP-GiST and GIN. Indexes can be created both on the column or columns in the table and materialized view.
Triggers:
Triggers are executed automatically before or after operations such as UPDATE, INSERT, DELETE, and TRUNCATE.
MVCC:
PostgreSQL supports a mechanism MVCC (multiversion concurrency control) to manage transactions. This mechanism allows access to the same tuple more than one transaction.
Data Types
Extended is the definition of data types with new types:

Boolean
numeric types
the number of total (smallint, integer, bigint)
the number of floating-point (real, double precision)
the number of incomplete about the exact representation (numeric, decimal)
text types (text, character alias char, varchar character varying alias)
types of binary (bit, bit varying)
types to store the date and time (timestamp / time with / without timezone, date, interval)
type in the calculation of currency (money) - the type is not recommended for use
enumeration (enum)
complex type (record)
an array type
types of full text search (tsvector, tsquery)
Geometric types (point, line, lseg, box, path, polygon, circle)
types of network address (CIDR, inet, macaddr)
XML also supports XPath expressions (version 8.3)
UUID (version 8.3)
JSON (version 9.2)
types of Span (Range Type) (version 9.2)
Oracle
Relational database management system data developed by Oracle Corporation. It uses a standard SQL query language and has an internal language to create stored procedures PL / SQL. As a language to create stored procedures in Oracle databases (from version 8i) it is also possible to use the Java language.
Structure
Oracle database system consists of:

Instance - memory structures and processes that support the operating system database. A typical process includes PMON (process monitor) and SMON (the system monitor).
The data storage structure.

Platforms
zLinux (64-bit)
Microsoft Windows (32-bit)
Microsoft Windows (x64)
Linux x86
Linux x86-64
Solaris (SPARC)
Solaris (x86-64)
HP-UX Itanium
HP-UX PA-RISC (64-bit)
AIX (PPC64)
OpenVMS (IA64)
Features
Active Session History (ASH), the collection of data for immediate monitoring of very recent database activity.
Automatic Workload Repository (AWR), providing monitoring services to Oracle database installations from Oracle version 10. Prior to the release of Oracle version 10, the Statspack facility provided similar functionality.
Clusterware
Data Aggregation and Consolidation
Data Guard for high availability
Generic Connectivity for connecting to non-Oracle systems.
Data Pump utilities, which aid in importing and exporting data and metadata between databases
SQL*Loader, utility that facilitates high performance data loading.
Database Resource Manager (DRM), which controls the use of computing resources.
Fast-start parallel rollback
Fine-grained auditing (FGA) (in Oracle Enterprise Edition) supplements standard security-auditing features
Flashback for selective data recovery and reconstruction
iSQL*Plus, a web-browser-based graphical user interface (GUI) for Oracle database data-manipulation (compare SQL*Plus)
Oracle Data Access Components (ODAC)
Having acquired other technology in the database field, Oracle Corporation can also offer:

TimesTen, a memory-resident database that can cache transactions and synchronize data with a centralized Oracle database server. It functions as a real-time infrastructure software product intended for the management of low-latency, high-volume data, of events and of transactions.
BerkeleyDB, a simple, high-performance, embedded database
Oracle Rdb, a legacy relational database for the OpenVMS operating-system
MySQL, a relational database purchased as part of Oracle Corporation's takeover of MySQL's immediate previous owner, Sun Microsystems
Oracle NoSQL Database, a scalable, distributed key-value NoSQL database
Other databases marketed by Oracle Corporation
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