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Guillain-Barré Syndrome PTA 203

Pathology Project/ Dr Goodman

Tawna Gilman

on 13 February 2014

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Transcript of Guillain-Barré Syndrome PTA 203

Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Tawna Gilman
Pathology 203
Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Causes and Risk Factors
Course of Illness
Treatment Options
Intraveneous immunoglobulin (IVIG)
Physical therapy
Can occur at any age
Equal incidence in both sexes
Occurs after virus symptoms
Can be triggered by surgery or trauma
May be an autoimmune response
Guillain-Barré Syndrome is rare, occuring in only one out of every 100,000 people.
Guillain-Barré Syndrome can strike at any age; persons over 50 are at a higher risk
Guillain-Barré Syndrome is not gender-specific, men and women are equally prone to the disorder
Begins with tingling and weakness in limbs
Difficulty breathing
Difficulty with eye and facial movements
High or low blood pressure
Rapid heart rate
Guillain-Barré Syndrome can be triggered by surgery or trauma
Guillain-Barré Syndrome may occur as an autoimmune response to a bacterial infection.
Risk Factors
Risk of developing Guillain-Barré Syndrome increases with age, especially after 50
Risk Factors
Vaccinations, especially Influenza vaccinations may increase risk
of Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Risk Factors
While a specific cause is unknown, Guillain-Barré Syndrome usually occurs within one to two weeks after symptoms of a respiratory virus, gastrointestinal virus, or a bacterial infection
Course of Syndrome
Initial phase: Rapid onset and rapid worsening during first 3 weeks
Second phase: usually a plateau phase of no change
Recovery usually begins within 3 days to 3 weeks from onset
Course of Syndrome
Initial phase of illness begins with weakness and tingling in legs, which progresses to arms and upper body
As Guillain-Barré Syndrome progresses, limb muscles can cease function and weakness in upper body can cause significant problems with breathing and blood pressure, can become life-threatening
What is Guillain-Barré Syndrome ?
Guillain-Barré (Ghee-yan Bah-ray) Syndrome is a rare inflammatory disorder in which the body’s immune system damages the nerve cells of the peripheral nervous system by attacking and destroying the myelin sheaths which surround the axons. Guillain-Barré results in progressive muscle weakness or paralysis. Although Guillain-Barré can be life-threatening or even fatal, most people who develop it recover at least partially over a period of weeks or months.
95% of people who have Guillain-Barré Syndrome survive and most recover completely. Some people may have permanent mild muscle weakness. when patients go into remission within 3 weeks of symptom onset, the prognosis is most likely to be very good
During the second phase of the illness, patients typically have a plateau where no change happens. Often times at this phase, the patient needs artificial respiration and nutritional support
Treatment of Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Treatment of Guillain-Barré Syndrome can include plasmapheresis, which removes the plasma (liquid part of the blood) and the antibodies in the plasma which is thought to help reduce the symptoms of the disease.
Treatment can also include intravenous administration of immunoglobulins, a blood product that reduces the severity of the immune system's attack on the nervous system
Treatment of Guillain-Barré Syndrome may also include physical therapy to increase muscle flexibility and strength, to assist patient in use of assistive devices and to teach patient functional adaptations to physical limitations
Works Cited
"All About GBS." Http://www.gbs-cidp.org. GBS/CIPD Foundation International, n.d. Web. 22 June 2013. <http://www.gbs-cidp.org>.

Office of Communications and Public Liaison National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke National Institutes of Health. "Guillain-Barré Syndrome Fact Sheet."Http://www.ninds.nih.gov. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, July 2011. Web. 22 June 2013. <http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/gbs/detail_gbs.htm>.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)."Http://www.cdc.gov/. Centers for Disease Control, 23 Aug. 2012. Web. 22 June 2013. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/vaccine/guillainbarre.htm#who>.

Hansen, Matthew. "Guillain-Barré Syndrome, CIDP and Variants Guidelines for Physical and Occupational Therapy." Http://www.gbs-cidp.org. GBS/CIDP Foundation International, n.d. Web. 22 June 2013. <http://www.gbs-cidp.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/PTOTGuidelines.pdf>.

Mayo Clinic Staff. "Guillain-Barré Syndrome." Http://www.mayoclinic.com. Mayo Clinic, 28 May 2011. Web. 22 June 2013. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/guillain-barre-syndrome/DS00413/DSECTION=symptoms>.

"Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)." Virtualmedicalcentre.com. Virtual Medical Centre, 25 Feb. 2004. Web. 22 June 2013.

"Guillain-Barré Syndrome." Http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/. The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, n.d. Web. 22 June 2013. <http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/nervous_system/gbs/Pages/index.aspx>.

Spinal tap (lumbar puncture)
Nerve function tests
Procedure where a small amount of fluid is withdrawn from the patient's spinal canal at lumbar level. Cerebrospinal fluid is tested for a specific type of change that commonly occurs in Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Lumbar Puncture
Electromyography reads electrical activity in muscles to determine if weakness is caused by muscle damage or nerve damage
Nerve conduction studies determine how nerves and muscles respond to small electrical stimuli
Nerve Function Tests
Full transcript