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Gender inequality and education in Peninsular Malaysia

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Jordan Riley

on 9 December 2013

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Transcript of Gender inequality and education in Peninsular Malaysia

Gender inequality and education in Peninsular Malaysia

Questions & Aims
What is the preferred gender in Peninsular Malaysia?
How are "male" and "female" viewed in society?
What is the history of Malaysia and how has it affected the views of gender in society?
What programs have been put in place to ensure gender equality in terms of education and development?
History of Peninsular Malaysia
1400- Rise of the port city Malacca
1511- Portuguese colonial period
1641- Dutch colonial period
1786- Beginning of British rule
Non-interference Policy to minimize Westernization
Open Immigration Policy to participate in trade
Southern China came in great numbers to escape political turmoil.
1929- Control of Immigration
1957- Independence (Merdeka Independence Constitution)
Sex Preference in Peninsular Malaysia
-A son preference is widely documented in the world's developing economies.

-Developing countries have a preference of at least one son and one daughter.

-Second Malaysian Family Life Survey (1988)
Sex preference of Malaysia's three main ethnic groups?
Have the preferences intensified or diminished over time?
How did sex preference correlate with the fertility decline?



History of Education in Malaysia
Boys attended mosques for Koran classes or worked at the house of a religious leader. (No schooling for girls)
1835- 1st Malay boy's school.
1883- 1st Malay girl's school.
European Missionary schools opened in urban areas where few Malays lived. (Much skepticism of Christian/English education)
1907- English education for girls begins.
1937- 56,904 Malay children attend government assisted primary schools (27% girls).
Women and Development
-Today, Malay girls receive about the same amount of education as Malay boys and more than Chinese and Indian girls.
-Islamic practices sometimes conflict with Malay social policies.
-Malay customs regulate social life more than Islam.
Malay attitude towards gender relations are much more liberal.
By Jordan Riley
Pong, S. (n.d.). Gender inequality in education attainment in peninsular malaysia.
Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment.
Today
-Multi-ethnic society
Malay (57%)
Chinese (32%)
Indian (10%)
-Largely Muslim
Non-muslims must convert to Islam to marry a Malay (risk disinheritance if a Malay woman marries into a non-muslim family)


Pong, S. (1994). Sex preference and fertility in peninsular malaysia.
Studies in Family Planning
, 25, 137-148.
Second Malaysian Family Life Survey
Studied couples from Malaysia's three major ethnicities:
-Malay
fairly moderate (slight son preference)
girls are sometimes preferred for treatment of aged parents
-Chinese
Historically patriarchal
one-child policy (strong son preference)
-Indian
son preference documented
NEP and NPP
NEP (New Economic Policy, 1970)
Favors Malays in treatment for education, employment, and access to ownership of assets.
Higher costs in education for Chinese and Indian causing a stronger son preference.

NPP (New Population Policy, 1982)
70 million by 2100.
Five fold increase.
"go for five"
Results of the MFLS-2
Collected data from 11,134 births.
-Malay- 6,129
Ambiguous results
Chinese- 2,548
Strong son preference
Indian- 1,556
No clear preference- not enough subjects
Studies simply cannot attain a reliable verdict of sex preference.
Gender Inequality in Education Today
The gender gap has disappeared for the most part yet it still exists amongst the elder population.
Gender Inequality in Education Today
Malay Gender Relations
Liberal
Equal domestic power
No patriarchal tradition (besides Chinese ethnicity)
Predominantly bilateral kinship
The State of Negri Sembilan- matrilineal
5th Malaysian Plan
Drive for ethnic equality in schools
Focus on ethnicity outweighed focus on gender- indirectly inducing gender equality.
Malay girls competing with girls of other ethinicities rather than Malay boys.
Programs for Women in Development
-1976: National Advisory Council on the Integration of Women in Development (NACIWID)
-1983: National Clearinghouse on Women in Development (NCWD)
received funding from UN fund for population activities (UNFPA)
-1983: Secretariat for Women's Affairs was est. under the Prime Minister's Department to act as executive body of the NCWD
-1989: National Policy for Women (NPW)
ensures equal opportunity by gender of access to resources and information, and integrating women in all sectors of national development.

Women in Development Today
Questions?
Purdah
"Islamic practice of secluding women to ensure compliance with social standards of modesty and morality."
Veil worn
Not practiced until recently
Pong, S. (1994). Sex preference and fertility in peninsular malaysia.
Studies in Family Planning
, 25, 137-148.
Pong, S. (1994). Sex preferenc and fertility in peninsular malaysia.
Studies in Family Planning
, 25, 137-148.
Pong, S. (1994). Sex preference and fertility in peninsular malaysia.
Studies in Family Planning
, 25, 137-148.
Pong, S. (1995). Gender inequality in educational attainment in peninsular malaysia.
Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment.
Pong, S. (1994). Sex preference and fertility in peninsular malaysia.
Studies in Family Planning
, 25, 137-148.
Pong, S. (1995). Gender inequality in educational attainment in peninsular malaysia.
Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment.
Pong, S. (1995). Gender inequality in educational attainment in peninsular malaysia.
Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment.
Borzelleca, D. (2012, February 16).
The male-female ratio in college
, Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ccap/2012/02/16/the-male-female-ratio-in-college/
Pong, S. (1995). Gender inequality in educational attainment in peninsular malaysia.
Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment.
Stivens, M. (2006). 'family values' and islamic revival: Gender, rights and state moral projects in malaysia.
Women's Studies International Forum,
29(4), 354-367.
Pong, S. (1995). Gender inequality in educational attainment in peninsular malaysia.
Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment.
Stivens, M. (2006). 'family values' and islamic revival: Gender, rights and state moral projects in malaysia.
Women's Studies International Forum,
29(4), 354-367.
Pong, S. (1995). Gender inequality in educational attainment in peninsular malaysia.
Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment.
Pong, S. (1995). Gender inequality in educational attainment in peninsular malaysia.
Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment.
Pong, S. (1995). Gender inequality in educational attainment in peninsular malaysia.
Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment.
Perak Academy. (2012).
No democracy without gender equality: The case for women's rights in malaysia by datin paduka marina
[Web].
Pong, S. (1994). Sex preference and fertility in peninsular malaysia.
Studies in Family Planning
, 25, 137-148.
Pong, S. (1995). Gender inequality in educational attainment in peninsular malaysia.
Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment
.
Borzelleca, D. (2012, February 16).
The male-female ratio in college
, Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/ccap/2012/02/16/the-male-female-ratio-in-college/
Perak Academy. (2012).
No democracy without gender equality: The case for women's rights in malaysia by datin paduka marina
[Web].
Stivens, M. (2006). 'family values' and islamic revival: Gender, rights and state moral projects in malaysia.
Women's Studies International Forum
, 29(4), 354-367.
Sources
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