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HSCI 120 Injury & Violence (Chapter 16)

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by

Jacob VanderKam

on 27 November 2014

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Transcript of HSCI 120 Injury & Violence (Chapter 16)

Violent acts more frequent in movies & TV than in real life
The Role of Media and Entertainment
Workplace violence:
violent acts directed toward persons at work or on duty
Workplace Violence, Hate Crimes, & Terrorism
Domestic violence:
usually characterized by a recurring pattern of escalating violence—a
cycle of abuse
Sometimes referred to as battered woman syndrome, but can occur in any relationship
Tension build-up, violent outburst, “honeymoon” period, often promises of change; and repeat
Family and Intimate Partner Violence
Stalking:
malicious following, harassing, or threatening of one person by another
Women are four times as likely as men to be victims of stalking
Stalking & Cyberstalking
A person of authority who offers benefits for sexual favors or threatens retaliation for withholding sex
(quid pro quo)
Sexual Harassment
The most frequently abused children are
9–11 years old
; girls are abused three times as often as boys
Child Sexual Abuse
To
preserve evidence
, do not shower, change your clothes, or modify the crime scene
What to Do
If You Are Raped
Acquaintance rape:
committed by someone known to the victim
Rape
Age, sex, ethnicity, geography
Socioeconomic level; lack of economic, educational, or employment opportunities
Exposure to media violence
Use of drugs and/or alcohol
Availability of guns
Public school system
Family background: child abuse; criminal activity by family members; lack of positive role models; chaotic family organization
Biological factors
What Accounts for Violence?
Natural Disasters
Improved in recent decades
occupational laws
advances in safety technology
Work Safety
Cold:
Hypothermia
Temperature-Related Injuries
Home Safety
Pet restraints
Unrestrained pets can distract and cause injury to a driver and passengers in an accident
Other Safety Concerns
Defensive driving:
anticipating potential hazards by keeping your eyes on other drivers and monitoring conditions
Motor Vehicle Injury
of all unintentional injury deaths
Motor Vehicle Injury
Communities
can help provide safe physical environments that are less conducive to criminal activity
Neighborhoods where people look out for each other are less inviting
Supporting Families and Communities
Intimate partner violence or domestic violence:
abuse against one’s partner in intimate relationship
The vast majority of victims are women
(95–98%)
The American Medical Association has stated that the home is more dangerous to women than city streets
Family and Intimate Partner Violence
Victims who come forward with an assault complaint often feel betrayed by mediation and gag policies
Victims should contact an
advocacy group
Culture of Secrecy
Red zone:
period when female students are at greatest risk for sexual assault
First-year: first few days or weeks of initial fall semester; second-year: entire first semester
Sexual Assault on Campus
Sexual coercion:
imposition of sexual activity through threat of nonphysical punishment, promise of reward, or verbal pressure
Sexual Violence
Factors that Motivate or Trigger Direct Assaults
Reduced incidents of hazing and hate speech have created a safer environment
Violence on College Campuses
1/5
child homicides are committed by a
family member
Crime Rates
& Violence Facts
Violence:
use of force
or threat
of force to inflict intentional injury (physical or psychological) on oneself or to another person
Violence
in the
United States
Workstation Setup
Proper Lifting
Training in first aid & emergency rescue techniques
Providing Emergency Aid
Injuries can occur in a wide variety of recreational activities
Recreational Safety
NHTSA standards
Approaches to Motor Vehicle Safety
Distance Covered While Texting
Unintentional injuries: Not purposefully inflicted
Injury: Creating Safe Environments
Injury & Violence
Chapter 16:
Cycle of Abuse
About
85%
caused by improper driving:
Speeding
Failing to yield the right of way
Disregarding signals and stop signs
Making improper turns
Following too closely
Men
more likely to be killed in car crashes.
Highest number: young (aged
16–19
) as well as the old (
> 75 years
)
Other factors that contribute to crashes:
Driver inattention
Young children in car
Events outside the vehicle
Talking on cell phones
Drowsiness
Aggressive driving
Alcohol-impaired driving
Environmental hazards
Weather conditions such as fog, ice, wind, and glare
Restraint systems
Safety belts
One in seven adults does not wear a seat belt on every trip
Airbags: passive restraints that protects passengers from impact with the interior of the vehicle in a crash
Second collision: impact of an unbelted occupant with the windshield, steering wheel, doors, dashboard, other passengers, etc.
Emergency notification systems
Motorcycle safety
Motorcyclists are 5 times more likely than passenger car occupants to die in a motor vehicle crash, and about 26 times more likely to be injured
Pedestrian safety
About 324 people in the U.S. go to the ER for pedestrian-related injuries every 24 hours
About 45% of deaths occur when pedestrians enter or cross streets
Children and older adults especially vulnerable
Swimming, boating, waterskiing, jet skiing
40% of all disabling injuries occur in the home
Each year many people die due to excessive temperature conditions
Danger is highest for ages
75+
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
(
CPR
) is used when someone is not breathing and a pulse cannot be found
Many organizations offer classes
American Heart Association
American Red Cross
Community or campus resource centers
Back injuries account for 24% of total
Common injuries from:
Improper lifting
Heavy backpacks
Extensive computer use
Strain on neck, back, arms, eyes
Repetitive strain injuries
Carpel tunnel syndrome (CTS)
Prepare for types of disasters likely to occur where you live.
Simple assault:
an attack
without a weapon
that causes
less serious
physical harm
Assault:
attack on another person using
force
or threat
of force
to intentionally inflict injury
Aggravated assault:
attack that causes
bodily injury
, usually with a weapon or other means
capable
of producing grave
bodily harm
or
death
Violent crime
lower in the U.S.
than most other developed countries,
except
in the area of homicide
Firearms are attributed to about
1/3
of all violent crimes and
70%
of all homicides
1/3
of
women
killed are killed by their
husbands or boyfriends
The most common campus crime is burglary, followed by motor vehicle theft and
aggravated assault
Since the Virginia Tech shooting (2007), campuses have expanded emergency communication measures
The Campus Sexual Assault Victims’ Bill of Rights Act requires administrators to provide justice, medical treatment, and psychological counseling for crime victims and survivors
Sexual assault
is any sexual behavior that is forced on someone without his or her consent
Rape:
forced sexual intercourse
Forced sodomy:
oral or anal sexual acts
Child molestation
Incest
Fondling
Statutory rape:
sexual intercourse with someone under the age of consent
whether consent was given or not
Male rape:
the victim is a man
Date rape:
committed by someone with whom the victim has a dating relationship
Stranger rape:
committed by someone unknown to the victim
Follow these tips:
If you feel unsafe, trust the feeling
Avoid being isolated with someone you don’t know
Know your surroundings
Don’t post your location online or on voicemail
Use a buddy system, and don’t go out alone at night
Lock your door
Practice safe drinking
Rape
counseling
is critical to recovery
Visit a hospital
afterwards to be given a rape exam
Document
everything you can remember about the attack
Do whatever you need to do and can do to
survive
Seek help
as soon as possible by contacting law enforcement
Colleges and universities may be
underreporting
sexual assaults
When victims seek help from certain types of counselors and not the police, their assaults are not reported
Some colleges rely on mediation procedures, a practice explicitly discouraged by the departments of Justice and Education
Any
interaction between a child and an adult or an older child for the sexual gratification of the perpetrator
Incest:
sexual activity between family members, a particularly traumatic form of child sexual abuse
Child sexual abusers may or may not be pedophiles
Victims suffer
long-term effects
Many cases go unreported
Is it harassment or flirting?
One person’s power over the other
Behavior that puts pressure on a person
Desire to end the interaction
Cyberstalking:
use of electronic media to pursue harass, or contact another person who has not solicited the contact
Threatening, harassing, sexually provocative, or other unwanted e-mails
Attack or impersonation of the person on bulletin boards or in chat rooms
Family violence
includes:
Child abuse
Elder abuse
Violence against persons with disabilities
Help is available from social service agencies, hotlines, shelters, and more
Dating violence is widespread:
43%
of college women experience violent or abusive dating behaviors
Terrorism:
violence directed against persons or property, including civilian populations, for the purpose of instilling fear and engendering a sense of helplessness
Hate crimes:
crimes motivated by bias against the victim’s ethnicity, race, religion, sexual orientation, or disability
The entertainment industry maintains these studies demonstrate only possible associations, and attempts at regulation would border on censorship
Prominent medical groups have concluded there is a connection between violence in mass media and aggressive behavior in children
Repeated exposure may lead to habituation and desensitization
College campuses need to continue and adapt prevention efforts and to promote gender equality, healthy relationships, healthy sexuality, and civility
Families
teach children self-control and constructive ways to deal with anger, frustration, and destructive impulses
40%
The leading causes of unintentional injury death for Americans of all ages are:
Motor vehicle crashes
Poisoning
Falls
Choking
Drowning
Women
more likely to be involved in a car crash.
High heat & humidity:
heat stroke
37
kids die in vehicles each year
Rock climbing
Activities of special concern:
Bicycling
Operating all-terrain vehicles
Pocket bikes
Answer: don't take vacations?
answer: don't work?
Concussions
Excessive noise
Temperature-related injuries
Choking
Poisonings
Fires
Falls
Tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, wildfires, earthquakes
loss of life
severe injury
property damage
look it up...
#roadrage
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
metacarpals
phalanges
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Number_of_guns_per_capita_by_country
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_firearm-related_death_rate
US v. Other Countries
Risk factors:
Suggestive language or intimidating conduct that creates a hostile atmosphere that interferes with a person’s work or academic performance
(hostile environment)
.
Two broad types of behavior or situations:
your opinion?
emotional intelligence
social support
policy changes
social ecological theory
Full transcript