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Transcript of Genetics
Pea plants can reproduce quickly and many generations can grow in a season
Pea plants are easy to grow Steps in Mendel's Experiments: Step 1: Parental Generation (P)- pure breeding of purple and white flowers Step 2: First Filial Generation (F1)- crossed pure purple and white flowers with purple flowers generated. Step 3: Second Filial Generation (F2)- Allowed F1 generation to self-pollinate, produced flowers with a 3:1 ratio of purple to white Traits Mendel Studied: Mendel's Rules of Inheritance 1. Parents transmit genetic information (factors) to their offspring. 2. Offspring get one factor from each parent.
2 of the same factors- HOMOZYGOUS
2 different factors- HETEROZYGOUS 3. Alternative forms of a factor are called alleles.
Alleles (genes) form the GENOTYPE
Alleles determine the physical trait or PHENOTYPE 4. Offspring possess 2 alleles, but when gametes (sex cells) are made, only one allele is passed on. 5. The DOMINANT allele is expressed (Usually the geneotype is a capital letter)
The RECESSIVE allele is unexpressed (Usually the genotype is a lowercase letter) Mendel's Laws: Law of Segregation (Mendel's First Law): States that the members of each pair of alleles separate when gametes form. A gamete will receive one allele or the other. Law of Independent Assortment (Mendel's Second Law): States that 2 or more pairs of alleles segregate independently of one another during gamete formation. Punnett Squares Shows the probability of a trait showing in offspring monohybrid cross: simple punnett square dihybrid cross: two traits crossed Incomplete Dominance: intermediate form of two alleles given by parents Codominance: both genes are expressed fully Sometimes there are 3 possible alleles for a trait, but humans can only have two alleles Some traits are controlled by more than one gene called POLYGENIC example: height example: skin color example: skin color Sex-linked traits: Traits passed from parent to offspring on the x chromosome. Examples: hemophilia and color blindness Mutations changes in a gene- damaged