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Overview of Genetics for a high school biology class.

Sarah Hanika

on 3 October 2011

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Transcript of Genetics

comparison of two amounts Genetics The scientific study of heredity. Gregor Mendel Austrian Monk Father of Genetics Gardner of Pea Plants Mendel's Pea Plant Genetics Why would Mendel use pea plants? Pea plants have both male and female parts so they can self-polinate
Pea plants can reproduce quickly and many generations can grow in a season
Pea plants are easy to grow Steps in Mendel's Experiments: Step 1: Parental Generation (P)- pure breeding of purple and white flowers Step 2: First Filial Generation (F1)- crossed pure purple and white flowers with purple flowers generated. Step 3: Second Filial Generation (F2)- Allowed F1 generation to self-pollinate, produced flowers with a 3:1 ratio of purple to white Traits Mendel Studied: Mendel's Rules of Inheritance 1. Parents transmit genetic information (factors) to their offspring. 2. Offspring get one factor from each parent.
2 of the same factors- HOMOZYGOUS
2 different factors- HETEROZYGOUS 3. Alternative forms of a factor are called alleles.
Alleles (genes) form the GENOTYPE
Alleles determine the physical trait or PHENOTYPE 4. Offspring possess 2 alleles, but when gametes (sex cells) are made, only one allele is passed on. 5. The DOMINANT allele is expressed (Usually the geneotype is a capital letter)
The RECESSIVE allele is unexpressed (Usually the genotype is a lowercase letter) Mendel's Laws: Law of Segregation (Mendel's First Law): States that the members of each pair of alleles separate when gametes form. A gamete will receive one allele or the other. Law of Independent Assortment (Mendel's Second Law): States that 2 or more pairs of alleles segregate independently of one another during gamete formation. Punnett Squares Shows the probability of a trait showing in offspring monohybrid cross: simple punnett square dihybrid cross: two traits crossed Incomplete Dominance: intermediate form of two alleles given by parents Codominance: both genes are expressed fully Sometimes there are 3 possible alleles for a trait, but humans can only have two alleles Some traits are controlled by more than one gene called POLYGENIC example: height example: skin color example: skin color Sex-linked traits: Traits passed from parent to offspring on the x chromosome. Examples: hemophilia and color blindness Mutations changes in a gene- damaged
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