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Transcript of Middle Ages
Giovanni Pierluigi Da Palestrina
Hildegard Von Bingen
Bernard de Ventadour
Guillaume de Poitiers/Duke of Aquitaine (1070-1127)
Bernart de Ventadour
Richard Lion-Heart (1157-99)
Adam de la Halle (1237-87)
Ars Nova Composers:
Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361)
Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377)
Hildegarde Von Bingen (1098-1179):
Given to church by noble parents because she was the tenth child. She became a nun at 15 and became mother superior at 34. She experienced visions from the time she was a child. Composer of “Play of Virtues” and “Symphonia Armonia Celestrium Revelationun”- 77 poems each with its own music.
Two masters of music at the Cathedral of Notre-Dame were Leonin (1135-1201) and Perotin (1160-1240). Leonin developed Organum and responsible for introducing rhythm patterns. Perotin was the first to incorporate more than two voices and four-part works.
Carole: ring dance as dancers sang ballads.
Branle: chain of dancers made a side-to-side movement by alternating large steps to the left and right.
Farandole: dancers followed steps and leader with pipes and tabors playing in 6/8 time.
Estampies: instrumental music that still exists.
Troubadour song Kalenda Maya written to an estampie melody.
Saltarello followed estampie in 14th century. It is a fast leaping dance for couples in trip meter (3/4 or 9/8)
Strings, Woodwinds, Brass, Percussion and Keyboard instruments.
Indoor (bas-soft) and Outdoor (haut-loud) Instruments.
Meaning: new song
1320 by Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361) and Guillaume the Machaut (1300-1377).
Used various rhythms in triple and duple metres with various voices.
Earliest form is called Organum- second line of melody added to a plainsong chant, sung with the same words at the same time.
Parallel Organum- melodies run parallel to one another at the same interval and the notes of the second part a fourth or fifth below the first.
Cantus firmus- underlining melody
Motet- three-part work consisting of a piece of Gregorian chant in Latin, where the composer kept the original pitches but gave them a specific rhythm, usually making them very long notes.
Only one line of melody, but the line can be varied in a number of different ways. It can be sung by one person, or by a whole choir, or it may alternate melodic styles.
Some chants have only one note for each syllable in the text which are syllabic chants.
Melismatic chants have many notes attached to a single syllable.
During the Middle Ages, Feudalism was the main form of government where society would be ranked into 3 categories: Nobility, Clergy and Peasants.There was a continual struggle for power between the Church and the nobility.The Kings and barons used music as a way of increasing prestige of their courts. Gradually, their influence grew and the Church lost its position as the only sponsor of the arts.
The Court Poet/Composers were the Troubadours (southern France) and Trouveres (Northern France), as well as the minnesingers (Germany).
Troubadours and Trouveres mean “finder” or composer. Many of them were aristocrats. They became more popular in the 12th and 13th century. They were hired to entertain during dining, dancing and tournaments, court ceremonies, civic processions and military campaigns. Instrumental music became more popular in secular music than in the church.
Minstrels and Jongleurs, men and women who wandered from town to town singing and playing instruments, juggling, performing tricks and animal acts, were the cheaper alternative for the peasants and artisans.
Musicians, Poets and Minstrels
The “HAEC DIES” showing ligatures on the staff
Started off as monophonic (single line of melody) and slowly became polyphonic through neumes-voices signs that show voices rising or falling.
There was no staff (only neumes acting as a crib sheet) until Guido of Arezzo came along and added a black line above F and another above C to make a grid of four lines so that the pitches fell on a line or space. He also created solmisation (designating notes on a staff) DO, RE, MI, FA, SOL, LA and later on came the 7th note.
In the 12th century, the neumes changed into diamond-shaped dots and very thin vertical lines called ligatures. The note with the longest duration was the longa (flag).
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages
Crumhorn (softer than shawm)
Cornetto (wooden horn with finger holes)
Tabors and Nakers
Hurdy-gurdy: a kind of mechanical fiddle
with melody strings that are played through a keyboard
and drone strings that sound when a wheel is turned
Indoor and Outdoor
Shawm (ancestor to oboe)
Slide trumpet (trombone)