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Islamic Empire; Middle Ages; Byzantine Empire

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Kelsey Bessette

on 18 January 2018

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Transcript of Islamic Empire; Middle Ages; Byzantine Empire

Inheriting Rome: Islamic Empire; Middle Ages; Byzantine Empire
Umayyad Empire
Decline of Umayyad, rise of Abbasid
decline of Umayyad:
not equal (as preached)
decentralized power (localized)
luxurious caliph lifestyle
rise of Abbasid:
Abu al-Abbas (decended fr Muhammad's uncle)
takes Damascus in 750
banquet story
Islamic Empire
Abu Bakr -- Sunni
Ali -- Shia (Shiite) (661)
Keys to remember about Islam
acceptance of other documents
no priest equivalent (imam)
no icons
rapid expansion
Decline of Abbasids
empire became more decentralized/fragmented
farming problems
mercinary army
succession issues (assassination)
Seljuk Turks 900s (Abbasid as figurehead)
pushed into Byzantine empire - conflict prevented Christian pilgrimage
Mongols 1200s
1258 Baghdad looted, Abbasid leader killed
toned down conquests
increased equality
more sophisticated bureaucracy
encourage learning
moved capital to Baghdad
patronize literature & the arts
dynasty of Sunni caliphs
continued expansion
already had Egypt, Syria, Palestine (Jerusalem)
defeat Byzantium accross N Africa, Spain
Reasons for success:
Persian and Byzantine empires exhausted each other
bold fighting methods (god is with them)
desire to glorify Islam
functioning gov't system
conquered people didn't mind
Dark Ages: Overview
Roman Empire
spread classical ideas, latin, christianity
Migration period & Roman instability = fall of Rome
Byzantine Empire
Political, Social, Political Decline c. 500-1000
'dark ages' or 'middle ages' - medieval civ
Charlemagne's sons separate his empire into 3 parts (Treaty of Verdun)
Extended Christian civ to N Europe
Blended Germanic, Roman, Christian traditions
Muslim army v Frankish warriors (Charles Martel)
Battle of Tours 732, Christians win (sign of God's will)
768 Charlemagne (Charles' grandson: Charles the great) becomes king of Franks
crowned Emperor of Romans in 800 (helped eliminate Pope's enemies)
agitates Byzantine emperor
sets up power struggle b/w Germanic kings and Roman Popes
wanted to recreate Roman empire (united Christian Europe)
increased education
worked with Church (missionaries and conquerers)
Charlemagne's Legacy
Further invaders*:
vikings (destructive raiders)
Muslims in Sicily
other tribes
* These invasions promoted new form of government: Feudalism
Medieval Church
Christianity pervasive
main life events there
first Monastery in 530
education, medicine, travellers, orphans
Papal Supremacy
Cannon Law
Jewish persectution
Rise of the Middle Ages
agricultural revolution
increased trade
commercial revolution
leads to decrease of serfdom
banking leads to increase antisemitism
increased middle class
1000-1300 shifts between church & monarchs
replacing church systems with secular
Magna Carta 1215
limit power of monarch
House of Lords, House of Commons 1295
Byzantine Emperor requests help from Pope
Council of Clermont 1095
Jerusalem taken by Christians in 1099
Jerusalem taken by Muslims 1187
Byzantine Empire
key location for trade and defense
peak under emperor Justinian
wanted to revive Roman empire
revised law code
military expansion
Santa Sophia
(Haggia Sophia)
Byzantine Christianity
fierce debate
Emperor higher than Church
separation of doctrine over time
emperor highest clergy in Byzantium
clergy can marry
Easter more important than Christmas
disagreement about use of icons (Iconoclastic movement 8th c)
Great Schism
- 1054
Eastern/Greek Orthodox Church
Roman Catholic Church
Byzantine Empire Decline
struggles over: succession, constant wars, internal court issues, inability to protect its borders
1090s - first crusade
1204 - W Europe controls Byzantium for a time (Venitians)
1260s - Byzantine Emperor regains control, but capital never recovered
2 civil wars; class issues; loss of territory
1453 - Falls to Ottomans
previously nomadic; converted to Islam; pushed out of Asia Major
Western Rome falls in 476 - so what next?
Roman Heritage
education for layman = literate bureaucrats
regulate & tax
Silk Road ($) and farming
Greek Heritage
study classics
preservation rather than innovation
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