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Islamic Empire; Middle Ages; Byzantine Empire

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Kelsey Bessette

on 18 January 2018

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Transcript of Islamic Empire; Middle Ages; Byzantine Empire

Inheriting Rome: Islamic Empire; Middle Ages; Byzantine Empire
Umayyad Empire
Decline of Umayyad, rise of Abbasid
decline of Umayyad:
not equal (as preached)
decentralized power (localized)
luxurious caliph lifestyle
rise of Abbasid:
Abu al-Abbas as-Saffah (decended fr Muhammad's uncle)
takes Damascus in 750
"Banquet of blood" story
Islamic Empire
Abu Bakr -- Sunni
Ali -- Shia (Shiite) (661)
Keys to remember about Islam
acceptance of other documents
no icons
rapid expansion
Decline of Abbasids
empire became more decentralized/fragmented
farming problems
mercinary army
succession issues (assassination)
Seljuk Turks 900s (Abbasid as figurehead)
pushed into Byzantine empire - conflict prevented Christian pilgrimage
Mongols 1200s
1258 Baghdad looted, Abbasid leader killed
dynasty of Sunni caliphs
continued expansion - Iberian peninsula to Pakistan/Indus Valley
Sassanian and Byzantine empires had exhausted each other
conquered people didn't mind (religious tolerance)
Centralization -- how would you do this?
Capital moves to Syria (mostly Damascus)
Dark Ages: Overview
Roman Empire
spread classical ideas, latin, christianity
Migration period & Roman instability = fall of Rome
Byzantine Empire
Political, Social, Political Decline c. 500-1000
'dark ages' or 'middle ages' - medieval civ
Charlemagne's sons separate his empire into 3 parts (Treaty of Verdun)
Extended Christian civ to N Europe
Blended Germanic, Roman, Christian traditions
Muslim army v Frankish warriors (Charles Martel)
Battle of Tours 732, Christians win (sign of God's will)
768 Charlemagne (Charles' grandson: Charles the great) becomes king of Franks
crowned Emperor of Romans in 800 (helped eliminate Pope's enemies)
agitates Byzantine emperor
sets up power struggle b/w Germanic kings and Roman Popes
wanted to recreate Roman empire (united Christian Europe)
increased education
worked with Church (missionaries and conquerers)
Charlemagne's Legacy
Further invaders*:
vikings (destructive raiders)
Muslims in Sicily
other tribes
* These invasions promoted new form of government: Feudalism
Medieval Church
Christianity pervasive
main life events there
first Monastery in 530
education, medicine, travelers, orphans
Papal Supremacy
Cannon Law
Jewish persectution
Rise of the Middle Ages
Byzantine Emperor requests help from Pope
Council of Clermont 1095
Jerusalem taken by Christians in 1099
Jerusalem taken by Muslims 1187
Byzantine Empire
key location for trade and defense
peak under emperor Justinian
wanted to revive Roman empire
revised law code
military expansion
Santa Sophia
(Haggia Sophia)
Byzantine Christianity
fierce debate
Emperor higher than Church
separation of doctrine over time
emperor highest clergy in Byzantium
clergy can marry
Easter more important than Christmas
disagreement about use of icons (Iconoclastic movement 8th c)
Great Schism
- 1054
Eastern/Greek Orthodox Church
Roman Catholic Church
Byzantine Empire Decline
struggles over: succession, constant wars, internal court issues, inability to protect its borders
1090s - first crusade
1204 - W Europe controls Byzantium for a time (Venitians)
1260s - Byzantine Emperor regains control, but capital never recovered
2 civil wars; class issues; loss of territory
1453 - Falls to Ottomans
previously nomadic; converted to Islam; pushed out of Asia Major
agricultural revolution
increased trade
commercial revolution
leads to decrease of serfdom
banking leads to increase antisemitism
increased middle class
1000-1300 shifts between church & monarchs
replacing church systems with secular
Magna Carta 1215
limit power of monarch
House of Lords, House of Commons 1295
Western Rome falls in 476 - so what next?
Roman Heritage
education for layman = literate bureaucrats
regulate & tax
Silk Road ($) and farming
Greek Heritage
study classics
preservation rather than innovation
(lack of) understanding of medicine
sanitation removal
clean drinking water

how does this impact society?
how does this impact religious beliefs?
Terms to keep in mind:
imam - leader of mosque & community
ummah - community
caliph - religious & political successor of Muhammad
ulema - religious scholar
Muhammad's death 632 - 661
4 leaders
Spread Tunisia - Persia
not centralized
keep conquered systems
not dynastic
Capital stays in Mecca
To Keep in Mind:
conversion at sword is myth
higher taxes for non-muslims
Islam carried outside Islamic empire (trade, missionaries)
toned down conquests
increased equality
more sophisticated bureaucracy
encourage learning
moved capital to Baghdad (planned & cosmopolitan)
patronize literature & the arts
House of Wisdom
Math advancements
Full transcript