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Learning Styles for Assessment 2A

Assessment 2A by Kieren, Kym, Tyson, Sarah and Karen
by

Karen Halket

on 22 January 2017

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Transcript of Learning Styles for Assessment 2A

Learning Styles
How do you 'best' learn?
Introduction
Team 2
Kieren McPherson: Physical and conclusion
Kym McPherson: Aural and introduction
Tyson Horsewell: Logical and editing
Sarah Pace: Verbal and references
Karen Halket: Visual and layout

Kinesthetic learners have a preferred learning style that favours learning by doing, they prefer to practice a new skill or behaviour by manipulating equipment (Blevins, 2014).
Physical (kinesthetic)
Kinesthetic learners prefer to incorporate activity into their learning. They learn through physical construction or by practising a new skill or technique (Study and learning centre, 2007). As Pritchard (2013) states, kinesthetic learners “are good at recalling events and associate feelings or physical experiences with memory."
Kinesthetic learners may find it difficult to keep still, therefore not performing well in a structured learning environment which requires periods of time sitting at a desk while listening to a lecture or a teacher describe a process or activity (Morgon, 2017).
Neurolinguistics is the study of how language is represented in the brain, what happens as we acquire knowledge and use it in our everyday lives. Their are three principals identified. These are auditory, visual and kinaesthetic styles (Menn, n.d.). . Pritchard (2013) suggests that an inability to utilise more than one learning style, or dependency on one learning style can result in a less effective learning outcome, suggesting that balance of styles is most effective.
Click on the link to learn more
The following video provides a summary of the key components of Kinesthetic learners, the video is created by the Centre for Academic Success.
Visual-Spatial Learning

‘Visual learners process information best if they can see it.”(Marcy, 2001) Visual learners use pictures, charts, graphs and color coded notes to aid their learning. These learners remember “what they SEE rather than what they hear. It is thought that 65% of people are visual spatial learners." (Roell, 2016)
The learning process is focused when incorporating visual tools and color coding for visual stimulation. Visual-spatial learners are able to notice similarities and differences between objects and people. They are involved in the classroom learning experience when exposed to overheads, handouts and other visual aids to enhance the learning experience (Friedman, 2016).

Visual learners are “hypersensitive to ...everything in their environment” (Silverman, 2013). They are easily distracted and find it difficult to concentrate when receiving verbal instructions. They may also have difficulty breaking instructions into parts leading to difficulties in completing tasks (Morgan, 2016)

“Visual-spatial abilities are the domain of the right hemisphere” (Silverman, 2013). The occipital cortex is the primary visual area of the brain and the pathways lead to the parietal lobes. The ventral lobe processes identifies objects and the dorsal lobe processes where objects are located. "A visual-spatial learner ustilizes these lobes when processing information" (Silverman, 2013).
Follow the link below to learn more.

Logical (mathematical)
Logical-Mathematical learners have the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific & mathematical thinking (Berman, 1998).
Strengths
Logical-Mathematical learners have the capacity to work with numbers and engage in higher order thinking. They like to do experiments, solve puzzles/problems, work with numbers, ask cosmic questions, and explore patterns and relationships. They are good at math, reasoning,
logic, and problem solving (Vincent & Ross, 2001).
Weaknesses
Logical-Mathematical learners don’t trust their feelings, want to collect too much data before starting a task, they like to follow a set path, don’t like taking risks and don’t use other people enough (Lesley, 2009).
Science / Evidence
Since psychologist Charles E. Spearman published his first article on intelligence in 1904 much theorising and research has gone into the subject. The concept of the “general factor”, or g, was born out of analysis of test scores which logic and mathematical reasoning is one distinct form of thinking (Sternberg, 2015).
(Mathematical Logical Intelligence Means Putting Two and Two Together, n. d.)
TED Talk
This video shows how babies (15 months) use logical reasoning to generalise based on a small data sample, even before they can talk.
Cattell (1971) suggests that general ability is located at the top of an ability hierarchy where one of two aspects is fluid reasoning and problem solving. This research continues until today where Howard Gardner’s research lead him to propose the “multiple intelligences” theory.
By identifying the pros and cons of various learning styles it is possible to develop teaching methods that are aligned to student’s natural style of learning. Most learners develop a style of learning that stems from early childhood learning patterns, for example a style based on the senses that are involved in receiving and processing information (Edmunds, Lowe, Murray, & Seymour, 2002). Considering learning styles enables teachers to present a learning environment that provides students with a stronger learning outcome (Romenelli, Bird & Ryan, 2009). In this presentation we will discuss the visual, oral, verbal, physical and logical learning styles.
Aural (Auditory)
Auditory learning style describes the way in which a person makes connections and learns through listening,. They have strong auditory memory skills. It is helpful for this type of learner to hear lectures and stories, watch videos, have group discussions and they often talk to themselves and read aloud (Pritchard, 2013).
The strengths of auditory learners are that they remember what they have heard in lectures, discussions with peers and are able to recall oral instructions. They enjoy verbal discussions and gravitate to study groups, using technology to revisit an audio recording of a lecture can be helpful. Auditory learners remember more of what they hear and then say, cementing learning by verbally explaining things to others (Felder, 2002).
Some auditory learners find it difficult to be distracted when they are listening intently, as an example when listening and taking notes (Miller, 2006). Learning becomes difficult if only written information is presented, in this example an auditory learner would benefit from reading the information aloud to themselves.
Results of a study showed that students retained 26 percent of what they hear and 70 percent of what they say , supporting the concept of auditory learners verbalising information for increased retention (Felder, 2002).
Watch this video for a summary of Auditory learning principals.
Conclusion
The work of Howard Gardner (1991) best sums up this presentation. He encourages the use of various forms of media to transfer information as it satisfies the generally mixed learning preferences that would be found in a typical group. Gardner goes on to explain that an education system that holds the belief that everyone will learn in the same way may prove to be ineffective. A better approach would be to present and assess information in a number of ways to cater for individuals different learning styles.
Verbal Linguistic

Linguistic intelligence refers to the production of language (McDevitt, Ormrod, Cupit, Chandler, & Aloa, 2013). Verbal linguistic learners learn by hearing, seeing and saying words (Pritchard, 2013).


Verbal linguistic learners excel at the production
of abstract reasoning and symbolic thinking (Stanford, 2003). They have strong comprehension skills, showing an ability to remember and interpret what they have heard or read and to express thoughts and ideas both verbally and on paper (Abdallah, 2008). They prefer learning through written explanations, highlighting key concepts, flashcards, and visual reminders of information to be memorised (Rolfe & Cheek, 2012).
Verbal linguistic learners enjoy discussing and debating
what they have learnt. This means that they can be over confident and dominate conversations. They may also find
it difficult to understand material they have not heard,
making it difficult for them to fully comprehend
material that has not been covered in
lectures (Morgon, 2017).
This video provides a summary of verbal linguistic learning.
Neuroplasticity theory states that the brain and nervous system change in response to experience and the environment. This implies that children exposed to a rich language environment show heavy development in the temporal lobe, resulting in a strong linguistic intelligence (O’Donnell, Dobozy, Bartlett, Nagel, Spooner-Lane, Youssef-Shalala, Reeve & Smith, 2016).
Retrieved from https://joeneto19.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/visual.png
(TED, 2015).
(Ryan, 2016)
(Ryan, 2016)
(Loula, 2014)
References:
(LSU Center for Academic Success, 2013)
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Retrieved from https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu/content/1_StudySkills/study_tuts/learning%20styles/graphics/kinesthetic.gif
Blevins, S. (2014).
Understanding learning styles
. Medsurg Nursing, 23(1), 59-60.
Cattel, R. B. (1971). Abilities: Their Structure, Growth, and Action. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Edmunds, C., Lowe, K., Murray, M., & Seymour, A. (2002).
NVAA The ultimate educator: achieving maximum learning through training and instruction
. Retrieved from www.ncjrs.gov/ovc_archives/educator/welcome.htm.

Englert, L., Stannard, P., Williamson, K. (2009).
Understanding your preferred learning style
. ScienceWorld for NSW 8. P. 38. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.au/books?id=CNydymZH2GQC&pg=PA38

Felder. R. & Silverman, L., (2002).  
Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education
.  Retrieved from http://www.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/LS-1988.pdf.

Friedman, B. D. (2008).
How to teach effectively: a brief guide
. Chicago, Illinois: Lyceum Books.

Gardner, H. (1991)
The Unschooled Mind: How children think and how schools should teach
. New York: Basic Books.



Learning-styles-online.com (2016). Discover your learning syles – Graphically! Retrieved from www.learning-styles-online.com.

LSU Center for Academic Success (2013). Kinesthetic learners. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=QsK-BL-lhUc

Loula, R. (2014). Learning styles with Maria and Alexa: Verbal-linguistic. Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=CfQB.

Marcy, V. (2001). Adult learning styles: How the VARK learning style inventory can be used to improve student learning. Journal of the Association of Physical Assistant Programs, Vol 12 (2).

McDevitt, T. M., Ormrod, J. E., Cupit, G., Chandler, M., & Aloa, V. (2013). Child development and education. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia.

Menn, L. (n.d.). Neurolinguistics: Linguistic Society of America. Retrieved from www.linguisticsociety.org/resource/neurolinguistics.


Miller, D. (2006).
Tapping potential with learning styles: Auditory learners
. Retrieved from http://www.smarttutorreferrals.com/articles/study-skills/auditory-learners.

Morgon, K. (2017).
Advantages and disadvantages of different learning styles
. Retrieved from http://education.seattlepi.com/advantages-disadvantages-different-learning-styles-3581.html.

O’Donnell, A. M., Dobozy, E., Bartlett, B., Nagel, M., Spooner-Lane, R., & Youssef-Shalala, A. (2016).
Educational Psychology
(2nd Australian Ed.). Milton, Qld: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

Pritchard, A. (2013).
Ways of Learning: Taylor and Francis
. Retrieved from http://www.ebrary.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au.

Romenelli, F., Bird, E., & Ryan, M. (2009).
Learning Styles: A Review of Theory, Application, and Best Practices
. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 73(1), Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2690881/pdf/ajpe9.pdf. 

Roell, K. (2016).
How to use multiple intelligences to study for a test
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Ryan, C. (2016).
What is your learning style- Visual learning
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Silverman, L. K. (2002). Upside - Down Brilliance: The Visual Spatial Learner. Denver, Colorado: DeLeon Publishing.

Stanford, P. (2003). Multiple intelligence for every classroom. Intervention in school and clinic, 39(2), pp 80-85.

Sternberg, R. J. (2015), human intelligence, In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 04, 2017, from https://www.britannica.com/topic/human-intelligence-psychology

TED (2015), Laura Schulz: The surprisingly logical minds of babies. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/laura_schulz_the_surprisingly_logical_minds_of_babies

Vincent, A., Ross, D. (2001). Personalize training: determine learning styles, personality types and multiple intelligences online. The Learning Organization, Vol. 8 Iss 1 pp. 36 – 43.
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Study and Learning Centre, RMIT (2007). Kinaesthetic learners or active learners. Retrieved from https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu/content/1_StudySkills/study_tuts/learning%20styles/Kinesthetic.html.
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