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Transcript of Tughlaq Dynasty
His successor Firuz tried to please the nobles and the ulemas. His reign was peaceful in general. He restored the iqta system and decided that there should be hereditary succession to an iqta . To win over the ulema , he proclaimed that he was a true Muslim king and his State was a true Muslim State. He followed Islam but basically adhered to the policy of his predecessors.
Firuz set up a large department of public works. He repaired and constructed a number of canals . He also built new towns like Hisar-Firuza and Firuzabad.
The Mongol Ruler Timur was the ruler of a large empire in Central Asia . he invaded India and attacked and looted Delhi . His army masscarred thousands of people . With the loot he collected , he beautified his capital Samarkhand , with elegant buldings , palaces and mosques .
Before leaving Delhi , Timur appointed Khizr Khan as his deputy in India . Khizr Khan became the first Sayyid ruler .
Some aspects of Tughlaq Rule:- the sultan
Muhammad-bin Tughlaq the son of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq was a powerful ruler . Ibn Batuta tells us that the sultan had alot of ideas and plans that failed because the people could not understand them .
Shift of capital
In 1327,Muhammad-bin Tughlaq decided to shift the capital from Delhi to Devagiri which was later renamed as Daultabad . Most historians believe that the main reasons were that:
The sultan felt that he would be able to control and administer the empire better from Daultabad because it was the centre of the empire .
The Mongols were a constant threat to Delhi. Daultabad would be safe from them .
Thinking so, the sultan odered the shift of capital and also odered the population of Delhi to move to Daultabad . However , soon enough the sultan realized that he couldn't keep a watch on the northern frontiers from Daultabad . So , he odered
a re-shift of the capital .
The Tughlaq dynasty started from 1320-1414 .They have ruled close to a hundred years . The two main rulers are : Muhammad-bin Tughlaq and Firoz Shah Tughlaq .
Taxation in the doab
The sultan had raised the land tax in the doab region to increase the revenue collection . However the sultan was not having a good time because the doab was facing a sevre famine during this time . Raising tax at such a time was a mistake . Many peasents abandoned their land , some revolted . Finally , the Sultan had to withdraw his oders .
Introduction of a token currency
In 1329, Muhammed-bin Tughlaq introduced a token currency. since there was a shortage of silver , the sultan decided to mint coins of brass and copper. As brass and copper were easily available and much cheaper than silver, people bought brass and copper in bulk and started minting coins at home. Money lost its value. trade suffered as foriegn merchants refused to accept these coins , the sultan has to give silver coins. Thus ,treasury became empty.
The sultan was most powerful . However for sultan to rule they needed the support of the nobles and yet had keep them in check .Muhammad-bin Tughlaq tried to curb the power of the ulemas , Firoz Shah Tughlaq , however , was lenient with them . Firoz Shah Tughlaq brought back the sharia laws and ruled according to them .The Tughlaq sultans also tried to legitimize their rule . When the ulema termed Muhammad-bin Tughlaq 's rule as un-Islamic, he issued coins in the name of the Caliph . He did to suggest that he ruled according to the wishes of the Caliph . Both Muhammad-bin Tughlaq and Firoz Shah recieved authority to rule from the Caliph . This gave a religious-legal sanctity to thier rule
He was the first ruler the dynasty .
He put down rebillions and strengthened the Sultanate . He was succeded by his son Jauna Khan , who took the title Muhammed-bin Tughlaq.
To secure the northen frontiers of
of the Sultanate , Muhammad-bin Tughlaq sent an army to the Kangra region (modern Himachal Pradesh ) .
After annexing this region , the army procceded towards Tibet . Unfortunately they suffered heavy casualities.
To expand the empire , Muhammad-bin Tughlaq attempted to conquer Afghanistan and Khurasan. He built a large army for this purpose. But Timur came to power around that time in Central Asia, and the project and expedition did not materialise. Instead, he undertook an unsuccessful expedition to the Kangra hills, called the Qarachil expedition.
Land control-iqta system
The sultan's court was very ceremonial . 'Sijdah' and 'paibos' were performed before him . The sultan sat on a throne built on a raised platform . The princes , ministers , heads of different departments , ambassdors from foriegn countries, and other official were given fixed places to stand . Officials reported matters to the sultan . Scribes recorded the orders of the sultan.
The nobles were a very powerful group.The rulers often gave high post to thier slaves. Some governers while dothrs military commanders . Ibn Batuta and Barani mention many people of humble birth who became nobles. There were four departments of the empire :-
Diwan-i-wizarat (concerned with finance )
Diwan-i-rasalat (concerned with relious matters )
Diwan-i -arz (concerned with military affairs )
Diwan-i-insha (concerned with royal correspondence )
The wazir was the prime minister . He was very powerful. He supervised the work of all officials , kept a record of revenue and expenditure and appointed people to important posts . The qazi was the chief judge and the sultans adivisor on religious issues . The bakshi was the paymaster of the army . The noble who held the overall charge of the army was called ariz-i-mumalik. He and his offiers recruited , equippied and trained the soldiers .
During the Sultanate period , the nobles were given grants of land. This land was called iqta.
The nobles who recieved them were called iqtadars. They collected taxes from the farmers living in their iqta. With this money , they maintained themselves , their family and also paid the soldiers under them . In return , they supplied troops to the sultan, whenever he needed them.The Slave and Khalji sultans gave iqtas to only high military commanders
whereas the Tughlaq sultans gave iqtas more leniently. The sultans also checked that the farmers
did not get overtaxed. The iqtas were transferable thus, the sultan could take back an iqta or assign another iqta to him. Also , on the death of an iqtadar the iqta came back to the sultan. However , from the Tughlaq period especially from the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, the transfer of the iqtas became rare . The iqtadars began to treat them as hereditary and transfer them from father to son and the sultan could not stop this as he was not stong enough .
ulemas: scholars of Islamic learning
iqta:land given to the officers of the kingdom
caliph:supreme authority of the Muslims
sijdah:Persian customof stretching out on the ground with one's forehead touching the ground . It was done before the sultan to acknowledge his supermacy.
paibos/zaminbos:Persian custom of kissing the feet of the sultan . It was the gesture to acknowledge the supermacy of the sultan .