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history of computers

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karlye futch

on 26 October 2012

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Transcript of history of computers

By:Karlye Futch History of Computers The first computers Second (first electric one) BYE!! THE END!!!!! By 1965 the Third Generation of computers was introduced incorporating integrated circuits. Integrated circuits are small chips of silicon wafer containing many small transistors and circuits packed into the size of a postage stamp. Smaller, cheaper, and more reliable than even the transistor, they made this generation faster, smaller, cheaper, and more powerful than ever before Hope you liked it


luv you guys!!! The first computers were people! That is, electronic computers (and the earlier mechanical computers) were given this name because they performed the work that had previously been assigned to people. "Computer" was originally a job title: it was used to describe those human beings (predominantly women) whose job it was to perform the repetitive calculations required to compute such things as navigational tables, tide charts, and planetary positions for astronomical almanacs. Imagine you had a job where hour after hour, day after day, you were to do nothing but compute multiplications. Boredom would quickly set in, leading to carelessness, leading to mistakes. And even on your best days you wouldn't be producing answers very fast. Therefore, inventors have been searching for hundreds of years for a way to mechanize (that is, find a mechanism that can perform) this task. Howard Aiken at Harvard University built the world's first computer in 1944. It was called the Mark I or ASCC (Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator). The Mark I was an electromechanical machine, built to calculate cannon shell trajectories; it used relay switches. Programs and information were input by a punched paper ribbon. Aiken had managed to make the "analytic engine" that Babbage had envisioned. Unfortunately, the machine was very slow, taking seconds to multiply or divide six digit numbers. It was huge, weighed 5 tons, and contained 500 miles of wiring. The Mark I was a computer rather than a calculator because its function could be altered by changing its programming. A computer also has the ability to handle alphanumeric data as well as numbers and is capable of storing the data. One of the giants in the development of high level languages on digital computers was Grace Murray Hopper (1906-1992), recruited by Aiken in 1943 to be the third programmer of the Mark I. Starting in 1959 she led the design team team for the COBOL language in association with Sperry Univac. Then, in 1956, the transistor was invented at Bell Labs. Smaller, cheaper to manufacture, requiring less power, and more reliable, it quickly replaced the vacuum tube in computers. Thus, the Second Generation of computers was born. With the improvements in the computer itself, improvements in peripheral devices such as card readers had to be made. Instead of punched cards, magnetic tape was introduced for the storage of information and programs. Small regions of iron on the tape could be magnetized or not to represent 1's and 0's of the binary code for numbers and information. Where one punch card could only hold 80 characters, many thousands of characters could be packed into several inches of magnetic tape. Second Genertion Third Generation!! Fifth Generation The Japanese are now working on the Fifth Generation of computers. They have invested the equivalent of billions of dollars in a ten year plan to design computers based upon Artificial Intelligence, ones that will recognize sound and sight and will be able to "learn" and be "taught".
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