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Inclusive Learning - Disability
Transcript of Inclusive Learning - Disability
What is inclusion?
Provide an overall understanding of inclusion
The Warnock Report 1978
Categorising and labeling individuals according to their handicap is to be abolished!
The Warnock Report stressed the importance of focusing on the individual's education rather than their disability.
To discuss controversial debates surrounding inclusive education
To provide arguments for and against segregation
To identify current legislation and policies related to inclusive education
Provide a historical context of inclusive education
1974 Mary Warnock became the chair of the Special Education committee which developed the Education for Handicapped Children's Act.
"There is a conceptual confusion surrounding what inclusion is, what it is supposed to do and for whom"
(Julie Allan, 2008:1)
Sense of belonging within a community
Participation, collaboration and diversity
Inclusion in education is concerned with breaking down barriers to learning and increasing participation for all students, treating all learners on the basis of equality and non-discrimination
How did the concept of inclusive education evolve?
Medical Model -
Social Model - Integration/Inclusion
In June 1994 representatives of 92 governments and 25 international organisations formed the World Conference on Special Needs Education.
They called for inclusion to be the norm.
Guiding principle that mainstream schools should accommodate all children.
Lack of physical and human resources
Possibility of disrupting lessons and other pupils learning
Lack of training
Parent's right to choose their child's school
When is the line drawn? Who is in? Who is out?
CSIE: Reasons Against
"Segregated schooling has never proved to be superior to mainstream schooling"
"There is no compelling body of evidence that segregated 'special' education have significant benefits for students"
Research shows that segregated 'special' schooling has been associated with negative experiences and negative consequences for segregated pupils.
..."Segregated 'special' schools stifles creativity of mainstream schools..."
"Retaining segregated 'special' schools is out of step with the Government's learning disability policy, valuing people..."
"Segregated schooling does not lead to inclusion."
Current Legislation and Policy
Arguments for Inclusive Education
Appreciation of diversity
Preparation for all children to be part of an inclusive society
Time & money spent on determining pupils classification
Families become more integrated in the community
"For a lot of teachers inclusion is not a priority. They have to focus on getting results".
"I heard a teacher say she was not paid to "baby-sit" children who she felt were incapable of learning. She just sends them out of class with a member of support staff".
"Every child should have access to a teacher".
This entitled children with disabilities the right to an education in mainstream (Dare and O’Donovan, 2002)
Promoting inclusion and providing an understanding of LD/D to society.
Inclusion within an educational establishments for individuals with LD/D
Bullying by peers
Full time support needed
Complexity of Learning Difficulty/ Disability
1862 Lunacy Act
After the passing of the 1867 Reform Act, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Robert Lowe, remarked that the government would now "have to educate our masters." As a result of this view, the government passed the 1870 Education Act outlining education for all
1914 Elementary Education (Defective and Epileptic Children) Act. Local authorities were required to make provision for “mentally defective” children.
The Melville Committee Report (1973) provided the basic recommendation that all children are educable and should be educated
The 1978 Warnock report gave rise to integration, a practice of bringing children with special needs closer to their mainstream peers.
The term inclusion, endorsed by the 1994 Salamanca Statement was intended as a radical alternative to integration.
1990 - 2000's government policy of widening access to FE and HE
2010 Equality Act
individual or 'personal tragedy' model
views disability as a problem
a time where psychiatry, eugenics and IQ testing was popular
focuses on what a disabled person cannot do
labels disabled people as 'ill' and in need of treatment
leaves people feeling powerless, without choice and dependent on others
changes in the 1970's
disability rights activists - Michael Oliver
disability rights movement (UPIAS)
parent support groups (MENCAP)
aims to remove barriers to inclusion
Case Study 2 - Craig
is aged 16 years and has Cerebral Palsy. He needs a walker and a wheelchair to get around.
He also has complex learning difficulties, resulting in him having the mental capacity of an 8 year old.
He is currently in an ASN school but his parents feel he is not being included within mainstream society or with other children his own age.
Is mainstream the right educational environment for Craig?
lack of autonomy
lack of choice
become dependent on others
lack of self-esteem and status
subject to bullying
In 2005 Mary Warnock published a pamphlet which showed a change in her attitude to special needs and inclusion.
Some main points of the pamphlet were;
Inclusion in practice can lead to individuals being physically included but emotionally excluded
Small specialist school provisions are needed
Professionals should be making each individual the priority instead of what resources
Individuals with additional support need are inevitably going to be bullied in a mainstream setting, individuals are less vulnerable in specialist schools
Allan, J., 2008. Inclusion for all? [pdf] Available at: <https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/596/1/Scottish-Education-paper2007.pdf> [Accessed 13 February 2013].
CSIE., 2002. Inclusion in Education: the right to belong to the mainstream. [pdf] Available at: <http://www.csie.org.uk/resources/inc-ed-02.pdf> [Accessed 27 February 2013].
CSIE., 2004. Reasons Against Segregated Schooling. [pdf] CSIE: Bristol. Available at: <http://www.csie.org.uk/resources/reasons-against-seg-04.pdf> [Accessed 13 February 2013].
CSIE., 2008. The UNESCO Salamanca Statement. [online] Available at: <http://www.csie.org.uk/inclusion/unesco-salamanca.shtml> [Accessed 28 February 2013].
Dare, A. and O’Donovan, M., 2002. Good Practice in Caring for Young Children with Special Needs. United Kingdom: Nelson Thornes Ltd.
East Renfrewshire Council., 2011. Parental Involvement . [online] Available at: <http://www.ea.e-renfrew.sch.uk/parents/Categories/asn.htm> [Accessed 8 March 2013].
Fitzgerald, S., 2008. Warnock and SEN. [online] Available at: <http://www.specialeducationalneeds.co.uk/UsefulInformation/SEN-EducationInfo/warnock.html> [Accessed 25 February 2013].
Glazzard, J., 2011. Perceptions of the barriers to effective inclusion in one primary school: voices of teachers and teaching assistants. British Journal of Learning Support. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Gray, S. and Wallace, J., 2005. Supporting Children and Young People's Learning: A Handbook for Parents When Their Child Needs Additional Support. Scotland: Scottish Consumer Council.
Hamill, P. and Clark, K., 2005. Additional Support Needs: An introduction to ASN from Nursery to Secondary. Paisley: Hodder Gibson.
Hodkinson, A. and Vickerson, P., 2009. Key Issues in Special Educational Needs and Inclusion. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Thomas, G. and Loxley, A., 2007. Deconstructing Special Education and Constructing Inclusion. 2nd ed. Berkshire: Open University Press.
Warnock, M. and Norwich, B., 2010. Special Educational Needs: A New Look. 2nd ed. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.
1978 Warnock Report
1981 Education Act
1996 Tomlinson Report Inclusive Learning
1997 Learning Works (Helena Kennedy)
2006 Disability Equality Duty
2010 Equality Act
Sometimes (I Have Schizophrenia)/All Of The Time (I'm Just Human)
Meet the Superhumans
Developed by John Swain and Sally French (2010)
Affirms and validates disabled peoples’ experiences
Acknowledges the significance of individuals’ impairments
Allows disabled people to reclaim their disabled bodies.
Design research in collaboration with, rather than on behalf of people with disabilities
Does language matter?
Demonstrates the way in which we perceive disability
Affects the way individuals view themselves
poor social experiences
reduced academic experiences
lower student aspirations and teacher expectations
high absence rates
difficulty re-integrating into mainstream
poverty in adulthood
poor preparation for adulthood
Consequences of segreation