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Giovanni Escobar

on 27 March 2012

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PREPOSITION by We use by to show how something is done Example A. We send a postcard or a letter by post.
B. We will contact someone by phone or by email.
C. We pay for something by credit card or by cash. We use by to show that something happens ..... by mistake ( I took her hat by mistake )
by accident or ( I called her Maria by accident )
by chance. (Do you know if she has a friend by any chance). We use by to show how someone travels:
They came by car/ by taxi/ by train/ by plane. Example We can also use by with –ing to show how something happened: She passed her test by studying hard.
I got into the house by using my key. In passive sentences we use by to show who or what did an action: This was painted by Picasso.’
This house was built by my grandfather.’
I was invited by Sarah.’ By can be used after the following adjectives: We were surprised by the news.
I was shocked by his death.
She was astonished by his request. Use ‘by’ for ‘an amount’ He is older than me by 3 years.
We sell tomatoes by the kilo. By’ as ‘no later than’
In the following situations by means ‘on’ or ‘before’ I need your homework by Friday.
The boy must be in bed by 9 o’clock. Example By’ as ‘alone’ .... By can be used with:
These all show someone or something being alone: I stayed at home by myself and read the newspaper.
The cat opened the door by himself. Example The explorer was bitten by ____________ in the jungle.
She fixed her washing machine by _________________ .
This piece was composed by ___________________.
He offered to pay for the damage by ________________.
The game was watched by __________________ of fans.
She was quicker than me by 5 ___________________.
I am impressed by your ________________________.
Have the report on my desk by __________________.
Sorry, I stepped on your foot by _________________.
He travelled all the way by ______________________. Use the following words to complete the sentences:
train / a snake / mistake / herself / Monday / Beethoven / English ability / cash / seconds / thousands ACTIVE VS PASSIVE VOICE The active voice is the "normal" voice. This is the voice that we use most of the time. You are probably already familiar with the active voice. In the active voice, the object receives the action of the verb: The passive voice is less usual. In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb: Cats eat fish pronoun verb object ACTIVE PASIVE fish are eaten by cat pronoun verb object The object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb STRUCTURE Subject main verb (participle) auxiliary verb (to be) water is drunk by everyone fords are made in Nebraska Passive (Simple Forms)
Simple Present: I am driven
Simple Past: I was driven
Present Perfect: I have been driven
Past Perfect: I had been driven
will-future: I will be driven
Future Perfect: I will have been driven
Conditional I: I would be driven
Conditional II: I would have been driven
Active (Simple Forms)
Simple Present: I drive
Simple Past: I drove
Present Perfect: I have driven
Past Perfect: I had driven
will-future: I will drive
Future Perfect: I will have driven
Conditional I: I would drive
Conditional II: I would have driven
Active (Progressive/Continuous Forms)
Simple Present: I am driving
Simple Past: I was driving
Present Perfect: I have been driving
Past Perfect: I had been driving
will-future: I will be driving
Future Perfect: I will have been driving
Conditional I: I would be driving
Conditional II: I would have been driving
Passive (Progressive/Continuous Forms)
Present: I am being driven
Past: I was being driven

exercises Change the sentence into pasive

A. Laura is writing the exercise.
B. He opens the door.
C. She pays a lot of money.
D. He doesn't open the book.
E. Does your mam pick you up?
F. She sang a song.
G. Somebody hit me.
H. She didn't win the prize.
I. Did they send the box.
J. Sandra has paid the bill.
K. We have cycled five miles. L. Lorena will buy a new computer
M. Her boyfriend install it.
N. Million of people will visit the museum
O. You will not do it.
P. Will the school hire a new employ.
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