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PART I of Gough Whitlam: The Individual in History

Gough Whitlam was an inspirational speaker and a charismatic leader. However, there is much debate over his ability to lead Australia and the means in which he was dismissed from office: Backgrounds, Changes & Continuities.

Ryan Slavin

on 30 January 2015

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Transcript of PART I of Gough Whitlam: The Individual in History

Changes & Continuities Gough Whitlam Policies and measures Domestic Foreign Womens Rights Indigenous Rights Education Health Multiculturalism Social policy Beginnings It's Time Recognition Nuclear Testing Human Rights PNG & Japan Vietnam War Indigenous rights were promoted and Whitlam supported land rights. Womens rights were promoted.
Anti-discrimination laws were introduced.
Passed Family Law Act [1975] – divorce required ‘irretrievable breakdown’ not the need to demonstrate guilty - 'no guilt divorce'
Supported principle of equal pay for equal work Medibank: the national health insurance scheme
Established Community Health Centres
Set up School Dental Program
Welfare (old age pensions) Changed National Anthem: from God Save the Queen to Advance Australia Fair removing the old imperial honours system China Conscription was abolished.
Draft dodgers were released from prison.
All remaining Australian troops returned home from Vietnam. Whitlam became the first western leader to visit China The Whitlam government recognised Communist China, North Korea and North Vietnam as legitimate governments - led to being labelled a 'communist' by conservative opponents Under Whitlam, Australia opposed supporting links with apartheid (racist policy of social segregation based on race/colour) South Africa Whitlam was opposed the testing of nuclear weapons in the Pacific by the French
>>> frosty relations with the French - Papua New Guinea was granted independence in 1975.
- Established closer relations with Japan
>>> later to become biggest trading partner in the 1980s Gough Whitlam was born on 11 July 1916 in Kew, a suburb in Melbourne

Growing up, Gough Whitlam spent time in Melbourne, Canberra and Sydney.

Gough Whitlam attended school at Mowbray House, Knox Grammar School, Telopea Park Intermediate High School,Canberra Grammar School.

He enrolled at University of Sydney where he finished an arts degree and began a law degree.

Whitlam registered for the RAAF in 1941 and served from 1942 to 1945.

Entered parliament in 1952 >>> Australian Labor Party (ALP) Deputy Leader in 1960 >>> ALP Leader in 1967 (replaced Arthur Caldwell: Older 'stodgy'/ Whitlam: Younger 'Intellectual') >>> narrowly lost election in 1969 Under the "It's time" slogan, Whitlam won the federal election. Whitlam's Labor Party returned to power for the first time since 1949. BACKGROUND Prior to Whitlam coming to power, Australia experienced long standing conservative government under the Liberal-Country Coalition Party. The political philosophy at the time was labeled 'CONSERVATISM'

Time to Create:
Conduct some research and then represent Australian conservatism prior to Whitlam either in a TIMELINE, MINDMAP, or WRITTEN TEXT. Include definition, dates and prime ministers . Use the National Museum website: Create an Evernote notebook (or folder for Word/Pages) titled: "Whitlam, A study of the powerful figure in history"

Then, your first note/document needs to be sub-headed: "BACKGROUND". Your next note/document is sub-headed "DEFINITIONS" (this will be your glossary) What is your actual political philosophy? Take the quiz here (URL link below) and see where you are on the political philosophical spectrum. Be sure to TWEET it afterwards! Note, if it states 'America', substitute it in your mind for Australia (we are constitutionally very similar despite us being a Constitutional Monarchy and the US a Republic): http://selectsmart.com/FREE/select.php?client=NO Politics can never be examined properly without first understanding political philosophy. You have 3 minutes to research and then tweet a definition for discussion. We then will add it to our glossary Let's start with what we know before moving on to that which we do not...

On Twitter, tweet what you believe 'POLITICS' to be and then what you think is the role of the 'POLITICIAN' Lets look at the political spectrum It could be this complex... ...or made this simple. and social freedom and economic freedom Tweet your understanding of these terms for discussion. Then, tweet where you think you might sit on this spectrum and prepare to justify it on an ATTITUDINAL SCALE. Now let's test it! Fresh new look for ALP under Whitlam:
Great intellectual energy
Tall, imposing, powerful speaker
Stirring speeches
CHARISMA - what do you think this means? And, is this important to be a good leader? After 23 years of conservative Coalition government, it was seen as 'tired and out of touch' in the Cold War era. It lacked unity over the Vietnam War, and with quick successions of PMs after the retirement of Menzies in 1966, Australian society started to believe 'IT WAS TIME' for change. An Extract from the 'It's Time' speech which Gough Whitlam gave at the launch of the 1972 Labor party election campaign. Screen shot the source and answer in your notes - Change & Continuities

Q1. Identify the three aims Whitlam put forward.
Q2. Which groups in Austrlalia did Whitlam address?
Q3. How does this extract reflect the 'fresh new look for the ALP'?
Q4. What is Whitlam asking the Australian public to do? How do you gain this from the source?
Q5. Politicians like to use emotive language in their speeches. Is there evidence of this here? Do you think this would be received well by the Australian public? Why? Now let's PROFILE the key figures in the period of Australian political history into which we will be inquiring... Whitlam's SOURCE: National Museum of Australia, http://www.nma.gov.au/primeministers/gough_whitlam http://www.nma.gov.au/primeministers/gough_whitlam Now, use the following websites to PROFILE the BEGINNINGS and ENTRY TO POLITICS for
Malcolm Fraser:
John Kerr:
Give an evaluation of both sources at the bottom (reliable? relevant? perspective?) http://www.nma.gov.au/primeministers/gough_whitlam http://www.naa.gov.au/collection/fact-sheets/fs241.aspx Now create a new NOTE/DOCUMENT titled "Changes & Continuities" ...and became the member in the House of Representatives for Werriwa, Sydney. & Politics The Study of POWER and The Figure in History Definitions & A description of Whitlam from Labor Party Senator Fred Daley at the time of the campaign launch Q1. Describe how Fred Daley describes Whitlam.
Q3. Does this corroborate or contest the information you have read/seen of Whitlam so far?
Q2. Can you identify whether there is evidence of 'bias' or 'perspective' in the way Whitlam has been represented here? Photograph of Gough Whitlam, with entertainer Little Pattie, and the message of his party's successful 1972 election campaign 'It's Time' Q1. How is Whitlam represented here? And, is this how you would expect politicians to be represented in an election campaign? Explain why.

Q2. Could this be used as evidence to support the view that Whitlam was against 'CONSERVATISM'? Explain your thinking.

Q3. Who do you think is targeted with this campaign when you watch the clip? Explain why.

Q4. Keeping in mind the time - 40 years ago - do you think this is a convincing campaign clip to attract votes? Why or why not? Screenshot the source and answer in your notes - Change & Continuities SOURCE ANALYSIS: answer first in your notes and then discuss further on the LIFE 'conversation' (discussion forum) RESEARCH TASK: complete in notes - Backgrounds
conduct research on the 2 main political parties of Australia: 'the Australian Labor Party' and 'the Liberal Party Australia'.

Then complete a venn diagram (example below) to demonstrate your research & analysis of their political philosophy & policy ideas and tradional supporters Labor Both Liberal How do they differ? How are they the same? The Whitlam government was seen very much as a 'reformist government', ready to make changes to Australia's conservative past and 'make good' on election promises. In the first two weeks of office - before all the electoral results were completed, Whitlam and his Deputy Prime Minister Lance Barnard formed a two-person ministry, sharing 27 portfolios and began implementing the 40 policies of their reform program 'Bruce Petty's Cartoon 'Super Gough from the AUSTRALIAN newspaper, 18 December 1972 On the LIFE 'conversation' (discussion forum), explain the comment on Whitlam that cartoonist Bruce Petty is making here. And, how this corroborates (supports) the information you have just read. Use elements of the cartoon to support your view. SOURCE: Retroactive 2, Jacaranda. Australia. p. 390 Let's now take a look at some of the Whitlam government's reformist DOMESTIC POLICIES! glossary
term Portfolio: an area of responsibility of a minister in Parliament glossary term https://www.evernote.com/shard/s108/sh/6383e21f-0a59-4981-9518-76acf553fcdf/1eb787bbb1ca82a671ab44ce64619d32 What does this mean in the Australian political landscape?
Click on the link to a document comparing the major political parties in Australia: Let's test your philosophy further...
CLASS DEBATE! What are your views on the policy of mandatory 'Basic Card' adherence for people on welfare? Watch the clip and take a position on the issue.
Formulate an argument to support your position after weighing the pros and cons.

Also, consider the source's evaluation...
can you identify any 'bias', false 'representation' and stereotyping, and inbalance in any arguments? DEBATE music in History: Song Analysis as historical source What makes this a very powerful and symbolic photograph? Explain on the LIFE discussion forum with reference to elements of the photograph and your prior knowledge from class discussion. Gather round people let me tell you're a story
An eight year long story of power and pride
British Lord Vestey and Vincent Lingiarri
Were opposite men on opposite sides

Vestey was fat with money and muscle
Beef was his business, broad was his door
Vincent was lean and spoke very little
He had no bank balance, hard dirt was his floor

From little things big things grow
From little things big things grow

Gurindji were working for nothing but rations
Where once they had gathered the wealth of the land
Daily the pressure got tighter and tighter
Gurindju decided they must make a stand

They picked up their swags and started off walking
At Wattie Creek they sat themselves down
Now it don't sound like much but it sure got tongues talking
Back at the homestead and then in the town

From little things big things grow
From little things big things grow Vestey man said I'll double your wages
Seven quid a week you'll have in your hand
Vincent said uhuh we're not talking about wages
We're sitting right here till we get our land
Vestey man roared and Vestey man thundered
You don't stand the chance of a cinder in snow
Vince said if we fall others are rising

From little things big things grow
From little things big things grow

Then Vincent Lingiarri boarded an aeroplane
Landed in Sydney, big city of lights
And daily he went round softly speaking his story
To all kinds of men from all walks of life

And Vincent sat down with big politicians
This affair they told him is a matter of state
Let us sort it out, your people are hungry
Vincent said no thanks, we know how to wait

From little things big things grow
From little things big things grow Then Vincent Lingiarri returned in an aeroplane
Back to his country once more to sit down
And he told his people let the stars keep on turning
We have friends in the south, in the cities and towns

Eight years went by, eight long years of waiting
Till one day a tall stranger appeared in the land
And he came with lawyers and he came with great ceremony
And through Vincent's fingers poured a handful of sand

From little things big things grow
From little things big things grow

That was the story of Vincent Lingairri
But this is the story of something much more
How power and privilege can not move a people
Who know where they stand and stand in the law

From little things big things grow
From little things big things grow
From little things big things grow
From little things big things grow 2. DISCUSSION:
The chorus of this song 'From little things big things grow' might be considered a truism - a statement of undisputed fact or truth. As it applies to the 1966 Gurindji strike, what do you consider is the essential meaning behind this statement of truth? Post your views in response to this question on the LIFE Discussion Forum. Take 10min. to quickly research and read the background to this historic photo - "the Gurindji Strike" STOP! 10 minute REFLECTION TIME... Extended Response Practice
In the REFLECTION BLOG on LIFE, respond to the following question in one or two paragraphs demonstrating your understanding of the political landscape prior to Whitlam coming to power: How was the 'political landscape' conducive (helped to provide) to Whitlam winning government in 1972? “Governments must use its powers to improve opportunities for the disadvantaged and to reduce the gap between the wealthy and the poor “ Gough Whitlam

1) Create mind maps of the following DOMESTIC & FOREIGN policies under Whitlam in your notes under 'Changes and Continuities'. Also, screen shot the sources in this section & respond to the analysis questions underneath.

2) Then, explain under your Mind Map in an extended piece of writing whether you think these policies support the statement above. use source evidence to support your ideas.
And, why Whitlam might have been feared and stunned the Liberal-National opposition (conservatives) and their supporters (& senior public servants) Encouraged development of the Arts – Australia Arts Council, Australia Film & Television School, and Australian Film Commission.

Gave government assistance to the arts Abolished university fees (entry to universities free)
Created assistance scheme for university students (HECS)
Increased spending on education (to schools on a needs basis) - Started Aboriginal Medical Service clinics
- Granted Aboriginal Land Rights
- No new mining leases were granted on Aboriginal reserves
- Substantial increases in spending on Aboriginal affairs – on housing, health care, education (up 64%) Paid maternity leave for public servants
Pensions for sole supporting parents
Money for childcare (working parents)
Lifted/removed taxes on contraceptives >>> then, copy/paste (share) to REFLECTION BLOG
British Beef Baron
Indigenous elder
issue over wages - 1966 Indig. stockmen received $10 p/w while minimum Commonwealth wage was $34.20
200 Gurindji men & women walk off in strike
change of nature of strike from wage claim to land claim
Lingiari travelling around Australia to strike up support
1969 Liberal coalition govt given proposal to return 8 kn2 of Wave Hill pastoral lease to Gurindji >>> Cabinet refused to discuss the issue
Gough Whitlam
16 August 1975 Gurindji receive 1250km2 of Wave Hill pastoral lease From Little Things Big Things Grow - P. Kelly/K. Carmody 1. Lyrics analysis:
In small groups of three identify where the following is in the song ...Back to the MINDMAP!!!!!!!! ACTIVITY From this source, identify Whitlam's view of the value of the RACIAL DISCRIMINATION ACT From RetroActive History p.391 add to glossary RetroActive History (2010) p.391 Identify the words and phrases that provide clues to the author's judgment of the value of the education policies of the Whitlam years From RetroActive History (2010) p.394 RetroActive History (2010) p. 394 Graph showing divorce rate from 1966 to 1988 RetroActive History (2010) p. 392. SOURCE QUESTIONS:
1. Using the data from the graph and your own knowledge, what can you infer about the impact of the Family Law Act 1975 (Cwlth)?
2. Explain why there were fewer divorces before the implementation of the Family Law Act than after it.
3. Explain how some people could use source 12.7 to criticise the Family Law Act. Add to your Glossary Extracts from RetroActive History (2010) pp. 391-92 A 1973 Bruce Petty cartoon for the Australian SOURCE QUESTIONS:
1 Identify the government department depicted as a building in the cartoon.2 Who do the couple on the right of the cartoon represent?3 Describe the subject matter to which the cartoon is responding and identify the couple REVISION COMPETITION:
Be the first to identify and TWEET which of Whitlam policies tacked:
the promotion of equality
Involving people in Australia's decision-making process
liberating people's talents Add to your glossary RetroActive History, p. 396 An extract from Gough Whitlam's "The Relevance of the Whitlam government" in Jenny Hocking & Colleen Lewis [eds]. "It's Time Again: Whitlam and Modern Labor", Melbourne, 2003, p. 29. SOURCE ANALYSIS:
Explain what Whitlam saw as the advantage of Australia supporting the United Nations. Extract from a speech by Whitlam in Parliament on 24 May 1973 SOURCE QUESTIONS:
1) In his speech above, identify what Whitlam sees as a 'a most disturbing matter'.
2) Which nations does he name in relation to this
3) Outline the purpose of Whitlam's speech.
4) Identify the action that Australia is tasking to achieve this. RetroActive History p.399 RetroActive History (2010) pp. 397-98 For the Glossary... Photograph showing Margaret Whitlam (second from right) visiting the Great Wall of China during her husband’s 1973 visit to the People’s Republic of China Photograph showing Prime Minister Gough Whitlam with Premier Zhou Enlai during Whitlam's 1973 visit to the People's Republic of China SOURCE QUESTION:
Outline the messages you think the photographers of following photos wanted to convey. How might different groups within Australian society have responded to them? adapted from RetroActive History chpt. 12, pp. 398-99 SOURCE QUESTIONS:
1) Identify the two ideas in the source that Whitlam thinks should be the basis of Australia's foreign relations
2) What does he consider to be a dangerous approach to foreign policy and what do you think he means by this?
3) Identify the Whitlam government.
4) Deduce which nation he is referring to with the words 'our great ally'. 1972 cartoon by Ron Cobb, commenting on the way in which the radical new policies of Whitlam's Labor government brought Australia under the international 'spotlight'. SOURCE QUESTIONS:
1) Identify the creator and date of the source.
2) Whose hand is behind Australia and what message is the cartoonist trying to convey throughthis image?
3) Identify the countries or regions Australia would meet on the world stage.
4) What symbols help you identify each of the countries/regions depicted?
5) What aspect of Whitlam's policies does this cartoon address? Revision of Whitlam's foreign policy Now lets revisit our final task for 'Changes & Continuities' of this inquiry... we'll come back to no. 2 later! we'll then divide the class according to political philosophy into our own 'CLASS PARLIAMENT" ready to debate topics along these lines...
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