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History of American Education Timeline
Transcript of History of American Education Timeline
EDU 324: History of American Education
Prof. Jennifer Allen
September 16, 2012
History of American Education Timeline
The history of American education has seen many vast changes throughout the 18th, 19th, 20th, and currently 21st centuries. Some of these changes consist of segregation, religion, politics, children with special needs, funding, and technology along with many others. The events below have had a huge impact within our educational system and have affected not only our educators but most importantly our students. As time passes, changes to American education evolve in hopes for improving our educational system and making things better for the educators and students so that learning can be the focus of what is most important.
Old Deluder Satan Law
In 1642 the colonial government mandated that children should be taught to read and understand their religion and the laws of this country. Nothing had be done or accomplished until 1647 when Massachusetts created the Old Deluder Satan Law which requires towns of 50 or more people to start a school for reading and writing, and towns of 100 or more to create a Latin grammar school. This would help the puritans maintain their religion which some leaders had stated that their “covenant with God was forsaken” (Gaither, 2011, 2.2). This law became known to other colonies which also put it in to place. This law was the seed that was planted for the inspiration of “government-controlled, tax-supported, free public education” (Gaither, 2011, 2.2).
Roman Catholic Schools
Before the 1800’s there were not very many Roman Catholic schools. But Catholic immigration continued to rise and they determined that more schools were needed. This did not make the Protestants happy because they only wanted their religion taught. After the American Revolution, the Catholics erected their first parochial school in 1783 known as St. Mary’s School located in Philadelphia. Catholic schools continued to grow throughout the 19th century. Most Americans did not agree with the Catholic schools and considered them “foreign and dangerous” (Gaither, 2011, 6.1). The Protestants fought against the Catholic schools and did not agree that they should be government funded. In 1876, the Republican House Speaker advised that it was unconstitutional for financial aid to support any religious education from the government. This was the Blaine Amendment which also stated that “no particular creed or tenets shall be read or taught in any school or institution supported by government funds” (Gaither, 2011, 6.1).
During the 17th century, there was no other place for the people that had mental conditions. Schools were not thought of yet for this type so the alternative was to put the people with disabilities or mental issues in insane asylums along with criminals and the homeless. The mentally disabled people were treated poorly and even abused. Reformers thought there needed to be a change within this type of facility and felt that indoor relief, or an institution for rehabilitative care was to be constructed. This is how special education developed. The first institutions were founded in the 1800’s, which included: American Asylum for the Deaf, established in 1817 by Thomas Gallaudet; Perkins Asylum, founded by Samuel Gridley Howe in 1832; and in 1848, The Massachusetts School for Idiotic and Feeble-Minded Children founded by Dorothea Dix.
The American Asylum for the Death, this school was to focus on children that were deaf and Gallaudet preferred the manualist approach which was the use of hand gestures by the death to communicate, also known as sign language. In 1867, there were 24 institutions and by 1907, there were 131 (Gaither, 2011).
Horace Mann was an advocate of common schooling and he wanted to make sure that all children had an education, no matter race or sex. Originally the funds were coming from towns that had to support their own school and educator. During the 1820’s, the economic growth was experiencing a huge transformation which help developed funds for education from business owners and farmers. This eventually changed, with the help of Mann. He wanted “free schools” to be paid for by the government which would allow all to attend. Mann convinced the government to provide funds for schools and to start constructing buildings to house the students. Although schools were funded by the government they were still under the control of the people in the towns.
In 1856, the first U.S. kindergarten was founded by a German educator, Margarethe Schurz. The idea came from a German educator known as Friedrich Froebel who opened a school in Germany in 1837 for small children which was solely based on play and activity (Gaither, 2011). He designed age-appropriate objects for his students to enrich their learning experiences and encourage active learning skills.
John D. Philbrick and Curriculum
In 1847, John D. Philbrick implemented what was known as the “graded system of instruction”. Textbooks and other educational materials were grouped into a sequence of events so that it was easier for the students to follow along. Prior to this implementation, educators taught to one class, no matter what age, and had their students recite spelling words according to their group.
Compulsory Laws Revised
In 1852, Massachusetts mandates the attendance law which was considered the Compulsory School Law. This law included mandatory attendance for children within the ages of eight and fourteen and must attend school 3 months out of the year, daily. Reformers were concerned that parents were not sending their children to school and immigrants were increasing the population which meant they needed to attend school to become assimilated to American society.
Elizabeth Peabody and Kindergarten
In 1859, Elizabeth Peabody opened another kindergarten facility. She wanted to devote her life to teach and train kindergarten educators by giving lectures and writings. By 1876, she was the founder of a prestige’s newsletter, Kindergarten Messenger (Concord Magazine, 1999).
In 1873, the law was revised reducing the age limit to twelve but mandating that the attendance would increase to twenty weeks per year rather than three months. Also, there was a $20.00 penalty for nonattendance and the violators were to be prosecuted by the city. The school committee did not have enforcers at the time to make sure people were abiding so they assembled a team of truant officers to make sure students were present in school (ND.edu, n.d.).
19th - 20th Centuries
Technology has been evolving for centuries. Back in the 19th century, school houses were using technology in their classrooms such as improved textbooks, blackboards, and even indoor plumbing and central heating (Gaither, 2011). During the 20th century new technological trends were emerging and in the 1920’s started with the radio and further followed by film in the 1930’s and television in the 1950’s.
In 1911, began the first Montessori school which was a non-religious private school founded by Maria Montessori. Her method of education for this type of school was to have children use free, active interactions within their surroundings (Gaither, 2011). This entailed students to choose what they wanted to learn and how they were going to spend their time.
Scope Monkey Trial
In 1925, Scope Monkey Trial became an issue when a teacher, John Scopes, was unlawfully teaching evolution in his science class. This was idea came from the Darwinism theory of evolution and many thought it should not be included into classroom curriculum. In the 1920’s conservative Protestants were angered that education was becoming too secular and were worried about the teaching of evolution in classrooms.
Scholastic Aptitude Testing
In 1926, was the first year to administer the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Administrative Progressives needed something to test student’s ability and knowledge before entering into colleges. Edward Lee Thorndike was the creator of the aptitude test and along with Dewey, developed a standardized test to test the students’ knowledge to see where they fit in academically.
Japanese Relocation Camp
From 1942 to 1945 Japanese American students were not allowed to attend public school with the “whites”. Because of the war, many were afraid of the Japanese and forced them into “war relocation camps” (Gaither, 2011). The students were taught to read English, learn Christian ways, and to acquire American traditions.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954, Brown v. Board of Education was brought to the Supreme Court and set the stage for the civil rights movement. Prior to this, blacks were sent to segregated schools and the education was not equal to what the “whites” were receiving. The laws were favoring the “whites” and were considered unconstitutional towards the “blacks”.
Soviet Union Launches Sputnik
In 1957, the Soviet Union succeeds in launching the first satellite into space, known as Sputnik. This created a large panic through United States because many feared that the Soviets were superior in technology. From this, in 1958 the NDEA wanted to improve the math and science curriculum in school systems. The idea set well with congress and schools began a new math and science program through professors related to the field.
J.F.K. Funds Special Education
The 1960’s, federal funding for special education was being provided to many schools. With the help of John F. Kennedy, federal involvement increased and states continued to receive federal and state grants especially offered to colleges and universities for teacher training programs of special education. Another type of funding was sent to states that allocated to individuals with disabilities so they could continue to receive “free education”.
Students with Special Needs
The Civil Rights Amendment changed the lives of many African-Americans and women, but what about the disabled or mentally ill society? In 1971, the case of Wyatt v. Stickney, a federal court judge ruled that people with disabilities have a constitutional right for treatment and adequate care in hospitals. Another case in 1972, PARC v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, was a case about the poor conditions of the Pennhurst facility in PA and many parties wanted to shut the institution down. The defense and prosecution determined that disabled people had a constitutional right to education and eventually came to agreement to require the state to develop an educational program suited for these children.
San Antinio v. Rodriguez
In 1973, U.S. Supreme Court case, San Antonio v. Rodriguez, was a case brought upon by Demetrio Rodriguez who wanted to send his children to school in San Antonio but it was determined by him that the school district was “dramatically unequal in every respect when compared to the local, wealthy, white school district at issue in the case” (Walsh, 2011). The court found the financial system based solely on property taxes was not an unconstitutional violation of the 14th amendment and the court found that there was “no constitutional right to an education for anyone” (Gaither, 2011, 7.4).
PL 94-142 Law
In 1975, congress passes a law, PL 94-142, which mandated that, 1) children who have disabilities be provided access to a free suitable education, 2) all children with disabilities and their parents are protected, 3) to aid states to provide such an education, and 4) to make sure that the effectiveness and quality of the special education was held to standards by the state (Gaither, 2011).
In 1991, was the founding of the first Charter School. This type of school “operates outside of the normal rules of public education” (Gaither, 2011, 6.5). The schools agreed to achieve a certain success previously agreed to maintain the schools presence. The idea of the charter school system was to provide innovative roles and experimentations within the classroom for students employ certain skills that are not usually covered with public school systems
The 21st century current technological trends in the classroom include the use of computers, internet, interactive white boards (used for special education), and even upgrades to the infrastructure of the school and much more. Rapid changes in technology will only increase as time passes and new technology will be implemented in the classrooms as it improves
In 2001, the No Child Left Behind Act came into play and from this was a creation of standardized tests that students are required to take to show their level of knowledge in the curriculum being taught. These tests are to be compared to other districts within American schools. The tests are taken by grades 3 through 8 and again in high school (Big Think, 2012).
With so much history within our educational system we have been able to view what has evolved and what is remained stagnant or has actually been done away with altogether. The majority of the changes that have taken place have had a much positive impact in America although it was a tough road for some to benefit from the change. Because of this history we can learn from the past and allow for changes for the better to improve the future of America and the students yet to come. Change is not always easy for some but it sometimes has the best interest in mind and it is up to “us” to make sure transformation makes a positive difference in society and education today.
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