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Cutting Off the Pain

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Jamal Abdile

on 5 June 2015

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Transcript of Cutting Off the Pain

Cutting Off the Pain
By: Jamal Abdile
History of Phantom Limbs
Current Research
Future Directions for Research
Important Applications
What is a Phantom Limb?
Work Cited
Technological and methodological improvements to existing treatments
Using BCI to control prosthesis to eliminate the Phantom Limb pain
Computer generated graphic environments
Ambroise Paré
Willaim Poterfield
Silas Weir Mitchell
Neuroplasticity
An amputee that has lost their limb, but still thinks that it is still there.
- These amputees often times experience Phantom Limb Pain, which are sensations in the amputated limb.
-Outbreaks of pain
"A New Challenge to the Maladaptive Plasticity Theory of Phantom Limb Pain."Pain Research Forum. Pain Research Forum, 2013. Web. 28 July 2014.
Berger, Ines H. "Historical Notes on Amputation and Phantom Limb Pain: “All Quiet on the Western Front?”." Quiet on the Western Front?” Department of Pain Medicine Gundersen Lutheran Health S 6.1 (2009): n. pag. Gundersen Health. Gundersen health, June 2009. Web. 26 July 2014.
"Phantom Limb Pain and Bodily Awareness: Current Concepts and Future Directions." US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. PubMed.gov, 24 Oct. 2011. Web. 28 July 2014
M. Goldfarb, B. E. Lawson, A. H. Shultz. Realizing the Promise of Robotic Leg Prostheses. Science Translational Medicine, 2013; 5 (210): 210ps15 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3007312

Current Treatments for Phantom Limb Pain
Antidepressants
-Blocks pain receptors
Surgical intervention
Trans-cutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
Mirror box method
-Creates the illusion that their amputated arm works.
-One hand in one box and amputated limb in the other. The mirror shows the normal hand but its actually a reflection.
Applications we could apply from phantom limb
Osseointegration
-How do they work?
-Advantages
-Disadvantages


Phantom limb pain
Maladaptive plasticity:
When the brains primary sensorimotor cortex is no longer receiving inputs from the missing body part, such as an amputated hand. Signals from other parts of the body starts to take over.
Remapping:
When the body part gives a more stronger cortical representation meaning the signals from the brain are causing the phantom pain.

Overview of the statistics
Article #1
90-98% of patients report experiencing a phantom sensation

75% of individuals experience the phantom as soon as anesthesia wears off
Article #2
95% amputees surveyed reported experiencing 1 or more types of phantom pain
Graph/charts
https://www.surveymonkey.com/analyze/w4VenCcsDqzxFPPIZK_2Fx6SQXrLtu3ovZlVE_2BECdNK1U_3D
Procedure
Design: Convenience Sample
This is not an accurate representation of the population as a whole

Predominately yes or no questions (Multiple choice)

Surveyed 30 young adults (randomly)
Hypothesis Testing
Null hypothesis: There's a percentage of people that have some knowledge about amputees or phantom limb pain.
Alternative hypothesis: There's a greater percentage of people that know little to nothing about phantom limb pain.

Independence: Everyone's answers were independent of each other
Randomization: Met
10% condition: 30 people is smaller than the world's population
Success/failure: np= 6/30 <10 nq= 24/30 >10


Conditions:
Mechanics
Type 1 error
Type 2 error
Conclusion
p= 6/30 = 0.2

1 proportion z test :

75% of people experience

z=-6.957
p=1
n=30
A Type one error in the context of this study would be :

Rejecting the null hypothesis and wrongly conclude that the percent of people with knowledge about Phantom Limb pain has changed over time.


Type one error in the context of this study would be :
we fail to reject the null hypothesis and and incorrectly conclude that the amount of people who know about phantom limb pain has increased over time.
The p-value is too high and the expansion of the margin error is too wide so we canreject the null hypothesis. Based on the study there is strong evidence to prove that less people are knowledgeable about Phantom Limb Pain.
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