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Cell Organelles

Looking into the function and structure of 10 cell organelles: cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, large vacuoles, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus and lysosomes.

Daniel Lindholm

on 5 March 2011

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Transcript of Cell Organelles

Contained within a double layer nuclear membrane or envelope, the Nucleus is the organelle that determines the cell's activities and processes.
Inside the nucleus lies the chromosones composed of DNA and proteins.
Through the pores in the envelope, these can communicate with the cells Cytoplasm*. By this method it controls everything that the cell does, it is the brain of the cell. Cell Organelles - Looking into the 10 main cell structures that make up the world we live in. Cell Wall Plant cells (only) have a protective outer wall called the 'Cell Wall'. It is a cellulose* structure outside theplasma membrane that contains everything within the cell.
The cell wall again offers protection and structure to the plant cell. It also acts as a filter controlling what enters and exits the cell. Other then the cell membrane and nucleus, the cytoplasm makes up the rest of the contents of the cell.

Made up of more then 90% water, the cytoplasm contains ions, salts, enzymes, food molecules and most the rest of the main cell organelles (other then the nucleus). Cell Membrane Nucleus *Cellulose - Comlex carbohydrate structure (found in cell walls). *Phospholipid - molecule consisting of long-chain fatty acids and a phosphate that makes up the overwheling majority of the plasma membrane. Large Vacuoles Vacuoles are found in all cells however large vacuoles, only found in Plant Cells. In animal cells they are used to store toxins but in plant cells that are looked at here they have a more structural and practical use. They are much larger in plant cells.

Typically, a plant cell will have one large vacuole containing cell fluid. This provides very effective support for the cell through turgidity (strength) and can also be used to store nutrients (in the fluid) to support the organism as energy reserves.

Ideally an organism keeps these vacuoles as turgid as possible, offering optimum strength to the plant however, when an organism cannot get these nutrient rich fluid from the environment, it uses the fluid in the vacuoles to provide more energy until the environment can again provide sufficient amounts. We see this in our everyday lives when a plant wilts or even dies because it is using (or has used up all of) the nutrients in its large vacuoles. THE END *Cytoplasm - While talking about plant cells, it is extremely important to mention chloroplasts which are unique only to these types of cells, as are cell walls and large vacuoles.

The chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis. It is a plants method of creating energy, using light and carbon dioxide to produce glucose (of which it uses) and oxygen which it omits into the external environment.
Chloroplast -
The light energy (trapped by chloryphyll) splits the water molecules, releasing oxygen into the air. Leftover hydrogen then combines with carbon dioxide taken from the external environment, producing glucose which the plant then uses for energy. The Cell (or Plasma) Membrane encloses the fluid within the cell, separating it from the external environment. In animal cells, the cell membrane contains the whole cell, whereas in plant cells it lies just inside the cell wall.
The plasma membrane is a phospholipid* layer. It's purpose is to determine the movement of substances into and out of the cell. It offers support and structure as well as being responsible for recognition, adhesion and chemical communication between cells. Plant Cell Mitochondrion Mitochondria is composed of many folded layers of membrane. While found in both animal and plant cells, the mitochondrion is the site for cellular respiration, an animal cells only way of converting food into energy.

Mitochondria breaks down glucose providing ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate), typically about 36-38 molecules of ATP for each molecule of glucose. This process, Kreb's cycle, is a very efficient method of producing energy due to the very large surface area to volume ratio. Animal Cell Ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum Lysosomes Golgi Apparatus The Golgi Apparatus is made up of flat membrane sacs.
It is the final site of protein synthesis, therefore linked to the ER and also the ribosomes. This is where the final packaging of proteins into membround bound vescicles takes place.

These protein packages are then secreted from the cell via the Golgi Vescicles, completing the synthesis of protein particles. The ribosomes are organelles located in the cytosol. They are originally produced inside the nucleus by the nucleoles and omitted through the nuclear pores.

Ribosomes are the sites of the production of proteins. They work together with Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, as shown in the image following. The ER (endoplasmic reticulum) is a network of intracellular membranes that links with the plasma membrane and other membranous organelles. Rough Smooth Rough ER is associated with ribosomes. It is involved with the production, processing, transport and storage of proteins within the cell. Smooth ER lacks ribosomes. On the contrary to Rough ER, it is involved with the production, processing, transport and storage of Lipids and Steroids, not proteins. Lysosomes are membrane bound organelles, vesicles that bind with debris and foreign material and break it down into manageable substances.

Powerful enzymes breakdown any harmful or unwanted substances in the cell. These could be such things like "worn out" or damaged organelles and external debris of foreign microorganisms. Lysosomes are also involved in breakdown of cells during programmed cell death.

Lysosomes are only found in animal cells.
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