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Principles of Government

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Andrew Cantrell

on 10 September 2014

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Transcript of Principles of Government

Government and the State
What is Government
Government has 3 types of power:
Government - the group of people and agencies entrusted with making and carrying out laws and policies agreed upon by the larger population.
Where is this power outlined?
Two Main Types of Government
Everyone has a say on all issues.
Direct Democracy
Types of Government
Constitutional Monarchy
Absolute Monarchy
representative democracy
the people elect agents who make and carry out the laws.
rule with
the consent of the governed
and can be
removed by the people at election time.

Examples of Democracies
What is the difference between an oligarchy and an autocracy?
Other dictatorships are like the one in Myanmar, where the military rules and there are no elections
(Military Junta).
Example Dictatorships
Government Models
In a unitary model, all power belongs to the central government,

The powers of the central government may be limited or unlimited.

Most governments in the world are unitary in form.
Unitary Government
Federal Government
A confederation is an alliance of independent governments that grant limited powers, usually involving defense or foreign affairs, to a central government.

The European Union is similar to a confederation.
Confederate Government
Parliamentary vs. Presidential Governments
In the federal model, power is divided between a central government and several local governments, usually according to a constitution.

The U.S. and some 25 other states have federal forms of government.
Both are forms of dictatorships, holding absolute and unchallenged authority over the people, who have no say in government.
- a small elite group shares political power.
- one person holds total political power
Some dictatorships are like that of China, where people can vote only for candidates from one political party and the legislature does whatever the dictatorship says.
the term government. What do you feel is the most important responsibility government faces today?
The State
There are more than 200 states, varying greatly in size, population, and power.
A state is not strictly the same thing as a nation (which refers to large groups of people) or a country (which refers to a particular region).

Every state has four basic characteristics:
States are the main unit of government in the world today.
Every state has a
, whether large or small, diverse or homogeneous.
, the power within its territory to decide domestic and foreign policies.
Each state has a
, to make and enforce its policies.
A state must have
, land with known and recognized boundaries.

Divine Right Theory
The divine right theory holds that God created the state, making it sovereign.

The government is made up of those chosen by God to rule a certain territory. The population must obey their ruler.
Evolutionary Theory
The evolutionary theory says that a population formed out of primitive families.

The heads of these families became the government.

When these families settled in one territory and claimed it as their own, they became a sovereign state.
The Force Theory
The force theory holds that an individual or group claims control over a territory and forces the population to submit.

The state then becomes sovereign and those in control form a government.
Social contract theory holds that the people can withhold power from an unjust government.
Social Contract Theory
This theory holds that
the people chose to give
the state enough power
to promote the well-being of
everyone and that all political
power comes from the will of
the people.
Which Theory Best Describes the United States?
It forms “a more perfect Union” by uniting the state governments and the American people.

It establishes justice by attempting to create and administer laws in a fair, reasonable, and impartial fashion.
The Preamble to the U.S. Constitution sets forth the basic purposes of America’s government.
Purpose of Government
Both democracy and free enterprise are based on the idea of individual freedom.
U.S. government involvement in the economy is aimed at protecting both the public and private enterprise.
The government regulates many economic activities to encourage competition and protect public welfare.
The government also offers many essential services, such as public education and transportation.
Government and Free Enterprise
Citizenship Overview

Democratic government works constantly to find the balance between individual freedom and government authority.
Individual Freedom

The majority must respect the rights o
f minoriti
es and listen to their viewpoint.
Majority Rules
Minority Rights
Concepts of democracy
Now that you have learned about what government is and what its purpose is, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question.
Is government necessary? (Write the answer on a separate sheet of paper and turn on before you leave.)
The U.S. government promotes the general welfare of citizens by providing services, such as public education, that benefit all or most people.

The government helps secure the blessings of liberty by guaranteeing many individual rights and liberties.
These freedoms are not absolute—you are not free to violate the liberties of others.
Purpose of Government, cont.
Free enterprise
economic system based on private ownership, individual initiative, profit, and competition.
Supply and Demand
Greater demand tends to increase prices, while lower demand tends to decrease them.
How Free Enterprise Works
Economic freedoms
Compromise is a key part of the democratic process.

In a society made of many equal individuals with different opinions and interests, public decisions require compromises.
Determining which way best meets the needs of the public also requires compromise.

What are citizens entitled under the democratic concept of equality?
Equality of All Persons
Worth of the Individual
Government offers domestic tranquility, or peace at home, by providing law and order.

Government provides for the nation’s defense by maintaining armed forces and safe-guarding national security.
Purpose of Government, cont.
Every democratic citizen has duties that they must obey.

Each citizen also has responsibilities that they should fulfill to improve the quality of their government and community.
Equality of All Persons, cont.
Each generation must strive for patriotism by learning and protecting these freedoms.
What does the phrase “thank your lucky stars” in the political cartoon at right refer to?
Purpose of Government, cont.
Democracy is based on a belief in the dignity and worth of every individual.
Individuals can be forced to do things that serve the good of the many, like paying taxes.
All citizens are
entitled to equality
of opportunity and
equality before the
Every person must be free to develop as fully as they wish. Achieving this goal of equality is an ongoing process.
For example, in Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled that segregated schools were unequal.
holds that the
will be right more often than it is wrong and will be right more often than any small group.
y will not always make the best decisions or even the right decisions, but in a democracy their choices can be improved or changed over time.
Democracy cannot allow complete individual freedom, which would lead to anarchy and lawlessness.
Democracy does require that each individual be as free as possible without interfering with the freedom of others.
Only works in small towns
Parliament selected by the people
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy.
The queen is the head of state
Head of government is the Prime Minister
The United States is a
constitution-based federal republic.
The President and members of Congress are chosen by the people.
The President is both Chief of State and Head of Government.
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