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Cát Tiênn

on 18 May 2015

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Upper tract
Monday, February 17, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Gas exchange
- Gases are exchanged between the alveoli and the surrounding capillaries
- Air fills the alveoli into the bloodstream then Carbon dioxide is pushed out of the blood
Gas exchange: Allows oxygen in the air to enter the blood
Lower tract
Regulation: Regulates amount of Oxygen and Carbon dioxide in the body
Voice production: Air moves past vocal cords to make voice
- Consists of: nose, mouth, pharynx and larynx
- Found in the head and neck
- Found in the chest
- Included in: Trachea, bronchi and lungs
Nose & Nasal cavity
Olfaction (Seance of smell)
Lung cancer: Smoking
Asthma: Air way walls become swollen
Pneumonia: Infection in lungs
- Nose (External nose): Allows air to enter and exit the system
- Nasal cavity (Internal nose): Warm and clean the air
- Known as: the voice box, contains vocal cords
- Allows the body to produce the sounds of speech and singing
- Protecting foreign object to enter the lungs by coughing and other reflexive actions.
- The start of lower respiratory tract
- Passageway that supplies air to the lungs
- Promoting a thermo balance for the air that enters the lungs
- Funnel- shaped, composed of skeletal muscle
- Acts as a passageway for food on its way to the stomach and for air en route to the lungs.
- Serves as the main muscle of respiration and plays a vital role in the breathing process.
- Main function: Help oxygen from the air to enter red blood cells. Red blood cells then carry oxygen around the body
- Helps get rid of Carbon dioxide.
Bronchus -> Bronchioles -> Alveoli
- Leading cause of death in the world
- In US, 28% of all cancer deaths each year are attributed to lung cancer
- Smoking is the cause of about 90% lung cancer cases.
- Cell lining the airways make more mucus than usual
- These changes cause the airways to narrow, the flow of air is reduced
=> Stop asthma attack by expanding the bronchioles, has no cure.
- The condition that has many causes and is characterized by inflammation of the lungs.
- Caused: Inhalation of various substances, viruses or bacteria.
- Very flexible and it contains rings of cartilage to prevent from collapsing
- Branches into bronchi
- Splits trachea into two parts
- Plural: Bronchi
- Usually warm, clean air reaches bronchi
- Small airways which extend from the bronchi
- Air sacs at the end of the bronchioles
- Creates a massive area for gaseous exchange
- Capillaries surround the alveoli
Small assessment
- The respiratory system helps maintain homeostasis by regulating the intake of air into the body and by removing carbon dioxide from the blood
Maintain Homeostasis
- Two ways: gas exchange and regulation of blood pH.
1. What parts of the upper tract consist of?
a. Nose, nasal cavity, pharynx and larynx

b. Nose, nasal cavity, trachea and larynx

c. Pharynx, larynx and trachea
=> Drink plenty of fluid, get lots of rest.
3. Where is the gas exchange occurs?
2. The upper tract consists of what parts?
4. List the functions of the system
A. Nose, nasal cavity, pharynx and larynx
5. Label: Bronchus, bronchioles and alveoli.
Between the alveoli and the surrounding capillaries
- Trachea, bronchi, and lungs
-Gas exchange, regulation, voice production and olfaction
When the diaphragm contracts (is pulled downward), _______ occurs
A. Inhalation
B. Exhalation
C. A hiccup
D. The lungs deflate
A. Inhalation
Oxygen from the air enters the blood stream at what location?
A. Cardiac notch
B. Pulmonary vein
C. Alveoli
D. Paranasal sinuses
C. Alveoli
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