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Anxiety and Depression

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Hannah Kavanagh

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Anxiety and Depression

"Dix and the Growth of Institutions." A History of Mental Institutions in the United States. University of Maryland Philip Merrill College of Journalism, n.d. Web. 12 Mar. 2014.
So how do you cope?
Typical Life of a Sufferer
not enjoying life fully
take little pleasure in activities
aura (affects the people around them)
What is mental illness?
"A disease of the mind; the psychological state of someone who has emotional or behavioral problems."
" A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome."
"...Psychiatric disorder: a psychiatric disorder showing symptoms such as persistent feelings of hopelessness, dejection, poor concentration, lack of energy, inability to sleep, and, sometimes, suicidal tendencies."
General Symptoms
sad, anxious, empty feelings
neuroticism, pessimism, hopelessness
sleep difficulties
concentration difficulties
idiopathic aches, pains (headaches, cramps)
suicidal thoughts
Types of Depression?
Chronic (major) Depression: Dysthymia
Classified as a long term, pervasive depressed mood
Atypical Depression
Opposite of a "typical" depressive disorder
sensitivity to rejection
moods exacerbated in "direct response to recent events"
Anxiety and Depression
Table of Contents
What is anxiety and depression?
Everyday struggles, coping, medication: "What causes mental illness?"
How have we portrayed people with mental illness (from a societal aspect)?
Drawing conclusions

Big Think:
"Does mental illness exist?"
Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression)
Alternating, irregular episodes of "extreme elation" or "mania" to severe depressive moods
difficult to predict; medicate
affects daily life in different ways
extreme difficulty to deal with
interferes with normal perception of daily life
Not always positive reactions to treatment
Feeling effects everyday
General Symptoms- Emotional:
persistent state of apprehension
feelings of dread
feeling disoriented, detached
internal, perpetual/chronic tension
"expecting the worst"
Affects 3-5% of people at any time
Lifetime Risk: 17%
Panic Disorder
sudden feelings of terror without warning (thus, irregular)
heart palpitations (similar to a heart attack)
feeling like you're going to die
lung constriction
results in social anxiety: agoraphobia

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
constant, disturbing thoughts, beliefs, fears that result in unnecessary rituals
when defying fear: chest pain, heart palpitations, lung constriction
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
typically following a severely traumatizing/scarring experience
frequent, terrifying memories, flashbacks
inherently distrustful of people/events (paranoia)
avoid events that remind them of experiences
tendency to being "emotionally numb"
General Symptoms- Physical:
accelerated heart rate
excessive sweating
chills, hot flashes
muscle tension
headaches, nausea
sleep difficulties
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD)
overwhelming self-consciousness
fear of being judged by others (public humiliation)
extreme paranoia
Comprehension: living and dealing with mental illness, therapy, instigators
counseling- coping therapies, talking
medication- herbal, drugs
general well-being: exercise, sleep, adequate nutrition
Self-Medication Hypothesis
doctor treatment can be time/money-consuming
sufferers don't want to admit that they have a problem
patients specifically choose the substance that ideally medicates them
ongoing controversy: does the substance abuse cause the issue or the issue cause the substance abuse?
What causes mental illness?
Nature or Nurture? Is mental illness a learned behaviour or a predisposition?
Medical theory vs. Society theory
According to Discover magazine, in severe cases,
electroshock therapy
is used in the treatment of depression.
Neurosurgeon drills a hole into the brain, inserting electrodes in order to reroute certain parts
Helen Mayberg (2005): "Direct aggravation of specific brain circuits can help depressed patients who are unaffected by treatment."
Factors in Depression and Anxiety:
Psychological: traumatic experience, neglect, early loss of loved one
Environmental: death, divorce, dysfunctional family life, low self-esteem, inadequacy, changes in life, social and cultural expectations
So is it caused by a malfunction in the brain?
Biological-Scientific: genetics, infection, injury of the brain, poor lifestyle, pregnancy malfunctions
What is depression?
Agoraphobia: fear of having an anxiety attack in a confined, public space
Why can't you just be happy?
Turn that frown upside down!
Just get over it.
How do we really see anxiety and depression?
You're such a martyr.
What has this generation come to?
Right, she's OCD, sure...
A Brief Rundown of How we React:
1773- the first two institutions ever introduced
treatments: restraint, drugs, plunge baths, bleeding, harsh salves
"For the relief of indigent sick persons, and for the reception and care of lunatics."
1841: Dorothea Dix advocates the rights of sufferers, stating that mental patients should be treated "more compassionately."
1954: new drugs introduced
1963: John F. Kennedy signs Community Mental Health Centers Act
2000s: Institutionalization almost abolished (in the government aspect of things) and the awareness of mental illness commences
Is this really anxiety?
Do we amp it up for the media?
What message does this convey about mental illness?
Can you see the fallacy?
Generation Gaps- we have shifted our perspectives on dealing with anxiety and depression- from annihilation to commiseration, we can't seem to decide
Is there a cure? Can the way you feel be eradicated completely?
Numbed to the point where mental health becomes something desirable
Comprehension: Instigators
Helen Mayberg has found Area 25: an area in which to place electrodes to specifically "switch off" depression
Application: How have we portrayed people with anxiety and depression?
Does mental illness exist?
Medical evidence of it being a cognitive malfunction
Are we a generation of martyrs?
Nature and Nurture coincide

"Depression." NIMH RSS. N.p., 2011. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.

Faris, Stephanie. "Recognizing Forms of Self-Medication." With Depression. N.p., 28 Mar. 2012. Web. 27 Feb. 2014. <http://www.healthline.com/health/depression/forms-self-medication>.

"Panic Disorder." AnxietyBC?. AnxietyBC, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. <http://www.anxietybc.com/resources/panic.php>.

"Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)." Canadian Mental Health Association. CMHA, n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. <http://www.cmha.ca/mental_health/post-traumatic-stress-disorder/#.UzTAp-29LCR>.

Smith, Melinda, Joanna Saisan, and Jeanne Segal. "Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)." Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). N.p., Nov. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. <http://m.helpguide.org/articles/anxiety/generalized-anxiety-disorder>.

"Treatment | Anxiety and Depression Association of America, ADAA." Treatment | Anxiety and Depression Association of America, ADAA. ADAA, n.d. Web. 26 Feb. 2014. <https://www.adaa.org/finding-help/treatment>.

"What Is Social Anxiety Disorder?" AnxietyBC?. AnxietyBC, n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2014. <http://www.anxietybc.com/resources/social.php>.

Dobbs, David. "Turning Off Depression." Editorial. Scientific American Aug.-Sept. 2006: 26-31. Print.

Minkel, JR, and Jonathan Beard. "Prozac Spurs Neuron Growth... Yet Antidepressants Offer No Cure." Editorial. Scientific American Aug.-Sept. 2006: 8+. Print.
What is anxiety?
1825: maltreatment in prisons foment pressure for relief provided by institutions
Rev. Louis Dwight advocated better conditions for mentally ill
Full transcript