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Aggression in Sport
Transcript of Aggression in Sport
Explain the causes of aggression
Critically evaluate theories of aggression
Describe ways of eliminating aggression Elimination of Aggression Cognitive strategies
Disengage from situation – walk away or count to ten
Reasoning – aggression is bad and will have a negative effect on performance
Progressive muscle relaxation
biofeedback – measure and recognise physiological reactions to stress that may lead to aggression Types of Aggression Hostile Aggression: the primary goal is to inflict injury or psychological harm on another. Such actions are dysfunctional and against the rules of the game.
Assertion (Channelled Aggression)
No intent to harm, behaviour that is controlled and within laws of the game. Such actions are functional and directed towards skill completion “Any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of injuring or harming another living being who is motivated to avoid such behaviour” Nature of game – local derby or importance of game
Reaction to hostile situation such as the crowd
Actual or perceived unfairness Instinct Theory Individuals have an innate instinct to be aggressive, which builds up until it must be expressed (directly or via catharsis).
Social Learning Theory
Aggression is learned through observing others (modelling) and then having similar behaviour reinforced.
Frustration-Aggression TheoryFrustration causes aggression
Aggressive Cue Hypothesis
Frustration only leads to aggression in certain circumstances.Certain cues will trigger aggression e.g. violent act, nature of game Reinforce non-aggressive behaviour
Withdraw aggressive players.
Emphasise non-aggressive role models.
Emphasise performance/task rather than outcome goals.
Keep winning in perspective.
Distinguish between aggression and assertion.
Teach appropriate behaviour.
Strict penalties for aggressive acts.
Attribute success to effort/ability not aggressive tactics.