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Aggression in Sport

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by

andy parkinson

on 15 November 2012

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Transcript of Aggression in Sport

Aggression in Sport Causes of Aggression Theories of Aggression In Addition Define types of aggression
Explain the causes of aggression
Critically evaluate theories of aggression
Describe ways of eliminating aggression Elimination of Aggression Cognitive strategies
Imagery
Mental rehearsal
Positive self-talk
Disengage from situation – walk away or count to ten
Reasoning – aggression is bad and will have a negative effect on performance
Punishment
Somatic strategies
Progressive muscle relaxation
biofeedback – measure and recognise physiological reactions to stress that may lead to aggression Types of Aggression Hostile Aggression: the primary goal is to inflict injury or psychological harm on another. Such actions are dysfunctional and against the rules of the game.
Assertion (Channelled Aggression)
No intent to harm, behaviour that is controlled and within laws of the game. Such actions are functional and directed towards skill completion “Any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of injuring or harming another living being who is motivated to avoid such behaviour” Nature of game – local derby or importance of game
Score differential
Reatiliation
Frustration
Reaction to hostile situation such as the crowd
Venue
Arousal
Actual or perceived unfairness Instinct Theory Individuals have an innate instinct to be aggressive, which builds up until it must be expressed (directly or via catharsis).
Social Learning Theory
Aggression is learned through observing others (modelling) and then having similar behaviour reinforced.
Frustration-Aggression TheoryFrustration causes aggression
Aggressive Cue Hypothesis
Frustration only leads to aggression in certain circumstances.Certain cues will trigger aggression e.g. violent act, nature of game Reinforce non-aggressive behaviour
Withdraw aggressive players.
Emphasise non-aggressive role models.
Emphasise performance/task rather than outcome goals.
Keep winning in perspective.
Distinguish between aggression and assertion.
Teach appropriate behaviour.
Strict penalties for aggressive acts.
Strict officials.
Attribute success to effort/ability not aggressive tactics.
Full transcript