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Transcript of Affective Consideration/
There are 3 levels of self-esteem:
1. General or global self-esteem:
It is the general valuation one makes of one's worth overtime
and across a number of situations. It’s said to be relatively stable in a mature adult and it’s resistant to change except by active and extended therapy.
Affective Factors in Second Language Acquisition
refers to emotion or feeling
domain is the emotional side of
human behavior. The development of affective states or feelings involves a variety of personality factors, feelings both about ourselves and about others with whom we come into contact.
Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues provided a useful
definition of the affective domain that it is still widely used today.
Bloom’s taxonomy (5 steps)
No successful cognitive or affective activity can be
carried out without some degree of self-esteem, self-confidence, knowledge of yourself and self-efficacy.
Personality development universally involves the
growth of a person’s concept of self, acceptance of self, and reflection of self as seen in the interaction between self and others.
The evaluation which individuals make and customarily
maintain with regard to themselves; It is a personal judgement of worthiness that is expressed in the attitudes that individuals hold toward themselves.
2. Situational or specific self-esteem:
3. Task self-esteem:
It relates to particular task within specific situations.
Specific self-esteem might incorporate second
language acquisition in general, and task self-esteem might specifically refer to one´s self-evaluation of a particular aspect of the process: writing, speaking, reading, or a special class of classroom exercise etc.
Attribution theory and self-efficacy.
It refers to one's self-appreciation in particular life
situations, such as social interaction, work, education, home, or on certain defined traits, such as intelligence, communicative ability, empathy.
The degree of specific self-esteem a person has may
vary depending upon the situation or the trait in question.
Willingness to Communicate:
In a simple way, According to MacIntyre (2001)
willingness to communicate (WTC) might be defined as “the intention to initiate communication, given a choice.”
Researchers have now been examining the extent
to which WTC is a factor not just in second language acquisition, but one that may have its roots in a learner's first language communication patterns.
MacIntyre et al. proposed a number of cognitive
and affective factors that underlie the WTC: motivation, personality, intergroup climate, and two levels of self-confidence.
Inhibition is a factor related to self-esteem and self-
Meaningful language acquisition involves some degree of
identity conflict as language learners take on a new identity with their newly acquired competence. Basically, this refers to the Language Ego as it was proposed by Alexander Guiora et al. (1972).
The inhibitions, the defenses that we place
between ourselves and others are important factors contributing to second language success. Therefore second language learning actually necessitates the making of mistakes.
Let´s forget stereotypes of who is extroverted or introverted.
Extroversion is the extent to which a person has a deep-seated
need to receive ego enhancement, self-esteem, and a sense of wholeness from other people as opposed to receiving that affirmation within oneself.
Introversion is the extent to which a person derives
a sense of wholeness and fulfillment apart from a reflection of this self from other people.
Although extroversion is often related to empathy,
it might not be necessarily that way.
One important fact that catch the attention is that,
according to one study by Busch (1982), it was found that introverted people are better at pronunciation and, in another study by Wakamoto (2000), extroverted ones are better at using learning strategies.
Important characteristic of successful
learning a second language.
Learners have to take risks about being
People with a high motivation to
achievement are moderate, not high risk-takers. These individuals like to be in control and like to depend on skills. (Beebe, 1983)
The silent student in the classroom is one who has
more fear of taking risk and making mistakes. Self-esteem ones seem to be closely connected to risk-taking factor.
The subjective feeling of tension, apprehension,
nervousness, and worry associated with an arousal of the autonomic nervous system.
The research about anxiety attributes that self-esteem
can be experienced at various levels according to Horwitz (2001).
1. Trait anxiety.
2. State anxiety
Three components of foreign language anxiety have been identified
in order to break down the construct into researchable issues (Horwitz & Cope 1986; Maclntyre & Gardner, 1989):
Fear of negative social evaluation.
Test anxiety, or apprehension over academic evaluation.
Anxiety in a foreign language class
could be the result of first language deficits, namely, difficulties that students may have with language “codes”.
Focuses on how people explain the causes of their own success and failures.
Bernard Weiner and others describe it in explanations for success and\or failure in achieving a personal objective.
1. Ability = Internal to the learner.
2. Effort = Internal to the learner.
3. Perceiving difficulty of task = External circumstances.
4. Luck = External circumstances.
It is when a learner feels that she or he is capable
of carrying out a given task. A high sense of self-efficacy an appropriate degree of effort may be devoted to achieving success. One of the most important roles of successful teachers is to facilitate high levels of self-efficacy in their students.
Empathy is understanding what the other person is feeling and it’s probably the major factor of harmonious coexistence of individuals in society.
It’s not a synonymous of sympathy; it leads to harmony between individuals.
Communication requires a sophisticated degree of empathy.
In order to communicate effectively, you need to be able to understand the other person's affective and cognitive state.
Psychologists added to this that there are two
aspects that are necessary for developing and exercising of empathy (Hogan, 1969):
Awareness and knowledge of one’s own feelings.
Identification with another person.
One of the more interesting imications of
the study of empathy is the need to defined empathy cross-culturally.
Alvarez Segura Amairani
Saucedo Varela Brenda Giselle
Vázquez Ramírez Jesús Ulises