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Unit 1 AOS 1 Health and Human Development 2016
Transcript of Unit 1 AOS 1 Health and Human Development 2016
In your workbook, write a couple of sentences or a list of words of what 'Health' means for you.
OK, so that explains 'health'
The human lifespan:
An understanding of the human lifespan and the various stages within it allows analysis and discussion of health and individual human development that occurs for people at different times throughout their lives.
The human lifespan can be broken up into different stages, although different cultures and societies have different ways of defining the stages.
What might the stages be?
Understanding the concept of ‘health’ is important for gaining an accurate knowledge of the level of health experienced in Australia.
This understanding allows areas for improvement to be identified and targeted.
A deep understanding of health will also allow for predictions to be made about the likely effect that introduced strategies and actions will have on the health of individuals.
Unit 1 Health and Human Development
Compare what you have written with the people sitting around you.
1. What are the similarities?
2. What are the differences?
How do we actually define
Handout: Defining Health
There has been ongoing debate about the meaning of health since the first commonly accepted definition was released by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1946:
‘health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. ’
Although this is a broad definition, it is the one used by health professionals to define health.
It was the first definition to consider health as being more than just the physical aspect, and recognises the other types or dimensions of health — social and mental.
The dimensions of health
P M S
Physical health refers to
the efficient functioning of the body and its systems, and includes
the physical capacity to perform tasks and physical fitness.
Most aspects of physical health can be readily measured or observed.
Mental health refers to a
‘state of wellbeing in which the individual realises his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community’
This includes thoughts and the impact that a person’s feelings have on themselves.
Interacting with other people is an important aspect of human nature. Social health refers to these interactions and their quality.
It is about
being able to interact with others and participate in the community in both an independent and cooperative way
HEALTH... Its all about the interrelationships!
You are required to include the following:
- Definition of health
- Definition of EACH (3) dimension of health
- Examples of each dimension
- Examples of 'overlapping' or interrelated dimensions.
(Please complete this as a venn diagram)
Timer Task - 5 minutes
1: Physical Health
2: Mental Health
3: Social Health
Your task is to read through what this dimension of health refers to from CH2. Write a short summary explaining this dimension in your workbook. You will be explaining your dimension to your group, make sure you understand it well!
2. Examples of the dimension
3. Two questions to quiz your peers to check that they understood
Jacaranda: TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS
Chapter 2.1: Case Study
"Confronting the issue"
Read and respond to review questions in your workbook
Chapter 2.1: Test & Apply your knowledge
Complete questions 1 to 14 in your workbook
Individual human development encompasses the
changes that people experience from conception until death.
Development is often characterised by milestones that are predictable and occur in a sequential order.
Going through puberty, learning to walk or learning the skills required to interact with others are examples of milestones associated with individual human development.
P I E S
In this course, we will examine four types or dimensions of individual human development.
All four dimensions are interrelated and therefore affect each other.
It is important to understand the four dimensions of development before investigating the characteristics that are common during youth.
Physical development refers to
the changes that occur to the body and its systems.
It includes external changes that you can see, such as changes in height, and internal changes you cannot see, such as the increasing size of the heart.
Physical development includes growth as well as motor skill development.
People from different cultures are raised with different values and skills relating to how they are expected to interact with others.
A newborn child knows very little about how to interact with others; it must learn the appropriate social skills and behaviours.
Social development refers to the
social skills and behaviours
that are learnt from a young age.
Case Study Review
Emotional development refers to developing the full range of emotions, and learning appropriate ways of dealing with and expressing these emotions. Good emotional development encourages positive self-esteem.
Intellectual development refers both to the processes that occur within the brain and to the increasing complexity of the brain.
In order to pass Health and Human Development (Unit 1), you must achieve the set outcomes:
Outcome 1: Understanding youth health and development
This area of study looks at the concepts of youth health and individual human development and explores the interrelationships that exist within and between them. You will become aware of the differing methods for measuring health status and develop a greater understanding of the health status of youth.
Outcome 2: Youth issues
In this area of study you will develop understanding of a range of determinants and their ability to influence youth health and individual human development. The importance of nutrition and the developmental functions it performs in the body are explored, including the consequences of nutritional imbalance on the health and individual human development of youth.
The Prenatal Stage
The prenatal stage begins when a sperm penetrates an egg in a process known as
The prenatal stage continues
It is characterised by the development of the body’s organs and structures.
This process takes 40 weeks to complete.
In terms of rate of growth, the prenatal stage is by far the fastest growth period of all the human lifespan stages.
The Infancy stage (Birth - 2nd Birthday)
As with most lifespan stages, there is debate about when infancy finishes. We will also use the second birthday as signifying the end of the infancy period.
Infancy is a period of rapid growth with many changes.
A newborn baby is obviously very different from a two year old.
By the time an infant turns two, they have developed their motor skills and can walk, use simple words, identify people who are familiar to them, play social games — and throw tantrums when they do not get what they want.
Many of the developmental milestones that the infant achieves will have some sort of bearing on how they develop in later years.
The Childhood Stage
Like infancy, the start and end of the childhood stage is a difficult thing to define. Most people say that it ends at the onset of puberty. As the age of the onset of puberty shows great variation among individuals, this study uses the
to signify the end of childhood.
The development that occurs in childhood is substantial, so it is worthwhile considering this lifespan as being divided into early childhood and late childhood.
Early childhood starts at the
end of infancy
and continues until the
characterised by slow and steady growth
learns social skills that will allow them to interact with other people
able to eat with adults at the table
become toilet trained
Late childhood starts at the
sixth birthday and ends at age 12.
characterised by slow and steady growth.
many physical, social, emotional and intellectual changes
refining reading and writing skills
developing long-term memory
understanding gender stereotypes
refining motor skills.
The Youth Stage
The youth stage of the lifespan has steadily lengthened over the past 100 years.
This has resulted from puberty starting earlier, and young people taking longer to gain independence and reach maturity in other aspects of their lives.
As a result, the youth stage of the lifespan is perhaps the hardest to define. We will assume that youth starts at
12 years of age and continues until 18
, although this may vary depending on the research used.
The youth stage is characterised by rapid growth, increased independence and sexual maturity.
Concerned with moving from childhood to adulthood
Youth must undergo vast physical changes in order to achieve sexual maturity
Youth will also undergo significant social, emotional and intellectual changes as they become accustomed to greater independence, more complex relationships and the development of life goals
The end of youth is characterised by a level of maturity in the physical, social, emotional and intellectual changes that have been occurring.
Early adulthood begins at
19 and ends at 40
Physically, this stage is characterised by the body reaching its physical peak around 25–30 followed by a steady decline in body systems thereafter.
Some growth may continue at the beginning of early adulthood, but all stages of adulthood are essentially periods of maintenance and repair as opposed to the periods of growth experienced in the earlier lifespan stages.
Middle adulthood begins at
40 and continues until the age of 65
Some of the more common characteristics of this lifespan stage include stability in work and relationships, the further development of identity including the maturation of values and beliefs, financial security, physical signs of ageing and, for women, menopause. During this stage, an individual’s children may gain independence and leave home, giving the parent a new sense of freedom. Sometimes this can also create a sense of loss or loneliness, often referred to as ‘empty nest syndrome’. Many individuals in the middle adulthood stage will experience the joy of becoming grandparents for the first time, although this can occur in late adulthood as well.
Late adulthood, the final stage of the lifespan, occurs from the age of
65 until death
. This period is characterised by a change in lifestyle arising from retirement and financial security (for most). It can include greater participation in voluntary work and in leisure activities such as golf and bowls. Many older people may also have to endure the grief associated with the death of friends or a spouse.
Adulthood is the longest stage of the lifespan.
When we are looking at developmental changes in adulthood, the focus shifts from growth to maintenance, then decline.
We can break this stage of the lifespan into three:
You may work in pairs to complete this activity.
You are to create a visual timeline of development
across the lifespan. This is to be completed and submitted electronically (Prezi, Powtoon etc)
You must include the following:
- the relevant ages for each stage
- examples of developmental changes that are occurring at each stage (at least two for each of the PIES dimensions)
- at least one image for each stage
1. Define health
2. What are the dimensions of individual human development?
3. Draw a visual representation of the aspects of health
Pens out, you have 3 mins!
Peer Assessment of Lifespan Task
In pairs, create a
Think of as many changes as you can that may be occurring... at least
for each dimension
hormones released in the
(in the brain) and causes many changes in the body including
- an increase in the rate of growth,
- a refinement of gross and fine motor skills,
- the development of primary and secondary sex characteristics.
The adolescent growth spurt is one of the most easily recognisable signs of puberty.
During the growth spurt, the individual will grow at the fastest rate since infancy
Primary and secondary sex characteristics
Primary sex characteristics are those parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction.
During puberty, changes occur to the organs of reproduction commonly referred to as the ‘genitals’.
Although present at birth, these organs only develop and become fully functional during puberty.
Even though considerable physical changes occur during youth, the social changes can be just as intense.
Youth generally move from being essentially dependent on parents, to being largely independent.
They learn how to act among different groups, and change the way they behave according to the situation.
The types of interactions that occur also change as youth are given greater freedom and treated more like adults.
As a result, their communication skills are further developed.
In forming their own values and beliefs and struggling to become independent, youths can often come into conflict with their parents or other caregivers.
... Does this sound familiar to anyone?
Up until adolescence, parents often make most of the decisions for their child.
During youth, relationships with parents are often re-organised in such a way that both the child and parent have a say in decision making.
As a result of this struggle, (and the other changes that youths experience, such as identity formation, social changes and puberty) youths may disagree with parents more often, which can lead to escalating conflict.
There is some great news though!
.... most young people emerge from this stage with a deeper understanding of their parents and vice versa.
In pairs, brainstorm a list of social changes / social development that may be occurring during youth
Social development during youth
Emotional development during youth
As with social and physical development, the emotional changes that occur during youth are significant.
As a result of all the changes that youth go through, the way they view themselves and how they deal with these feelings may also change. In the early stages of youth, individuals might be very self-conscious and begin asking themselves, ‘Am I normal?’
As a result of these feelings, youth might explore strategies, such as consulting with friends, in order to deal with these emotions effectively.
How might relationships impact our emotional development?
Intellectual development during youth
During youth, physiological changes occur in the brain and in the way that the young person perceives problems.
These changes result in significant advances in intellectual development.
Youth begin to see ‘grey’ areas in problems when they would have seen only ‘black and white’ in the past.
During this stage, the brain structures mature and abstract thought develops, as opposed to the concrete thought relied upon in childhood.
Information can be processed more efficiently, and groups of concepts that were viewed individually might now be linked together and viewed as an interrelated whole.
Examples of intellectual development during this stage include the following.
Reasoning skills increase
. As youth are presented with problems, they start to apply related knowledge to the problems in order to make educated guesses. In contrast, most children can see only concrete solutions.
The ability to create hypothetical solutions
and evaluate the best options develops. This comes from previous experiences and from applying old knowledge to new situations.
Focus on the future increases
. This may guide intellectual development — for example, students wanting to study science might develop an interest in learning about scientific principles and choose science courses at school.
Thinking becomes more informed.
Youths can distinguish between fact and opinion and may challenge views put to them by others, including adults.
More complex concepts are learned at school.
As a result, youths may develop an understanding of how they learn best (e.g. visual versus aural learners).
Concrete vs abstract thinking:
How many triangles are there here?
Show a 'brainteaser' like the triangle problem to another young person (early or late childhood) so that they may have a chance to solve it.
Compare their response to your own
Matt is in year 7 and started puberty 12 months ago. As a result, he is more physically developed than his friends, whom he has had since primary school. Matt has begun to excel at football because he is taller and stronger than the other boys of his age. He has started to socialise with his brother’s friends, who are in year 9. They are similar in size to him and he feels more ‘normal’ when he spends time with them. As they are two years older than Matt, they do different things when they socialise, including spending time at the shopping centre and going to local discos. One of the reasons Matt enjoys spending time with older people is that he feels it makes him look ‘cool’ in the eyes of other year 7 students.
1. Describe the physical changes Matt has gone through (or will go through) over the next few years.
3. Explain how Matt’s physical development could be affecting his:
- social development
- emotional development
- intellectual development.
you may complete this as a PIES matrix
In small groups, sort the cards to identify the different types of development occurring during the youth stage of the lifespan.
You must show that you have achieved these outcomes by the following:
• Unit tests (outcome 1)
• Unit tests (outcome 2)
• Research assignment (outcome 2)
• Semester exam (outcomes 1 & 2)
Unit 1 HHD: Learning Intentions
Complete the handout in pairs
... For many people a state of complete wellbeing is rarely attained and so most of the criticism of the WHO definition concerns the absoluteness of the word ‘complete’ in relation to wellbeing. It is strongly felt that no one could possibly have perfect health all of the time.
Limitations of the WHO (1946) definition
The debate continues...
You will each be numbered 1, 2 or 3.
Create a summary poster of the dimensions of health.
The level of healthiness that a person is
experiencing can be illustrated on a health–illness continuum.
The health–illness continuum illustrates the process of change, in which the individual experiences various states of health and illness (ranging from extremely good health to death) that fluctuate throughout his or her life as the dimensions of health interrelate.
1. Where are you located on the health continuum at the moment?
2. How and why has your position on the health continuum fluctuated in the past year?
Explain what is meant by ‘individual human development’.
Using examples, define physical development.
What does ‘increase in complexity’ mean?
List one example of a body part that increases in complexity.
Explain the difference between growth and development.
1 Explain how Miss Malaya’s social development has been affected by her early life experiences.
2 Discuss how Miss Malaya’s physical development has been/may be affected by her experiences.
3 Discuss why Miss Malaya may have forgotten how to talk but remembers how to bark.
4 Using examples from the article, explain why development that occurs in early life is important.
Handout: "Gone to the dogs: the girl who ran with the pack"
1. Explain the difference between self-concept and self-esteem.
2. Discuss the difference between concrete and abstract thought.
3. List one example of thought that illustrates:
- concrete thought
- abstract thought.
CH1 PIES classification game (ppt)
An interrelationship exists between physical, social, emotional and intellectual development.
These types of development can be
, meaning that development in one area often depends on the development that occurs in another.
Have a read of the tables on pages 13 and 14 to see some of these interrelationships in action.
Health or Development?
You must carefully consider the examples on the handout and state whether it is an example of health or development and the type of health or development you believe it to be.
Watch video and complete the worksheet
is a body system made up of glands that release hormones in order to control body functions.
is an organ in the body that produces and releases hormones.
A period involving a rapid increase in height and body mass, which occurs as a consequence of the onset of puberty.
1. What is the main hormone involved in the growth spurt?
2. Why do many young people seem out of proportion during the growth spurt?
3. Describe the average changes in height for both males and females from the age of 10 to 18.
4. Describe the average changes in weight for both males and females from the age of 10 to 18.
5. Why are there differences between males and females in height and weight?
Differences in growth for males and females
Activity 1.6 (Q1-5)
Using the tape measures provided, we will be investigating the heights of our class.
Measure your height and record it on the whiteboard.
From this, we will calculate
a) average male height
b) average female height
1. How does your class average compare to the average in Figure 1.15 ?
2. What was the range of differences in height among your class group?
3. Suggest 2 reasons why there might be differences among your class group?
Complete Chapter Summary
Key questions 1-18
Extension questions 1 and 2