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Childhood Obesity

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Brittany Smith

on 7 April 2014

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Transcript of Childhood Obesity

Childhood Obesity

What We Know

Obesity is a epidemic.
It causes different diseases like diabetes, and etc.
It is affecting adults and also children.
Their is a way to reduce the rate of obesity.
Obesity is cause by people overeating.

What we want to know
What age group does childhood obesity affect?
What statistics does obesity have?
Why do they eat so much?
How do you determine if your obese?
How can you stop it?
Who suffers from obesity?
What are the other diseases that you can get from obesity?
What is the affect of childhood obesity?
What is childhood obesity?
How is it cured?

What we learned
Smith, Corrine (2011, March) 10 frightening facts about child obesity. retrieved January 26, 2014, from www.examiner.com/article/10-frightening-fact-about-child-obesity
Sparks, N.D ( (2009, February) Child obesity research studies and facts. retrieved January 26, 2014 from www.sparkpe.org/blog/child-obesity-research
Gardener, Amanda (2012, June) Does obesity affect school performance. retrieved January 30, 2014 from www.cnn.com
Obese children make poor students because they might get bullied or tease by their peers.
Kids spends up to 5 hours daily watching TV and less time exercising.
25% of kids do not do any physical activity.
Only 2% of kids in the U.S eat healthy.
Half of diabetic children are overweight.

A child is consider obese if their BMI is 30 or higher.
Some of the main illnesses that is likely to occur if you are obese are heart disease, type 2 diabetes, gall bladder disease, and asthma.
Obese children is most likely to live shorter lives than their parent.
Childhood obesity has tripled in the last 30 years.
Sleep apea is growing threat.
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century.
One-fourth of all Americans eat fast food at least once a day.
We consume 20 percent more calories than a generation ago; most comes from fats and oils (up 63 percent), grains (up 43 percent), sugar (up 19 percent).
Three quarters of parents failed to recognise their child was overweight.
More than 100,000 children ages 5 to 14 have asthma each year because of overweight and obesity.
Children who are obese are more likely to suffer from heart-related conditions such as high blood pressure and heart disease.
[obese kid eating and watching TV] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2011/07/12/watch-out-parents-the-state-may-want-to-take-away-your-obese-kids/
[obese kid eating a burger] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://www.care2.com/greenliving/obese-children-getting-heart-disease.html
[a man measuring a obese boy waist] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/health/vitamin-levels-linked-type-2-diabetes-obese-kids-article-1.987460
[Healthy child to an obese child] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://tomatotalk.earthfare.com/2010/03/11/childhood-obesity-know-how-bad-it-is/
[A magazine on obesity] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://www.rejuvalife.md/obese-children-may-be-more-likely-to-die-prematurely
[obesity chart] retrieved February 6. 2014 from http://www.vhwellfit.com/september-is-childhood-obesity-awareness-month/
[boy thinking about junk food] retrieved February 6 2014 from http://www.howtolearn.com/2012/02/how-to-reverse-childhood-obesity/
[obese boy] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://deathisobsolete.com/playgrounds-too-safe-too-boring-to-keep-kids-active/
[ a chart} retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db82.htm
[obese baby]retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://www.flixya.com/photo/1830814/Obese-Babies-Become-Slim-In-Future-
[boy eating chicken] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://davidspell.com/tips-on-living-better-longer/
[boy not exercising like the other kid] retrieved February 6, 2014 from https://sites.google.com/site/childadolescentdevelopment2012/middle-childhood
[obese cartoon] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://ronjones.org/Weblinks/childobesity.html
[obese kid]retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/health/news/article3685658.ece
[unhealthy food] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://www.dreamstime.com/stock-image-unhealthy-food-pyramid-image7331111
[chart]retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://bookbing.org/obesity-related-organ-system-disorders-images-powerpoint-presentations/obesity-classification-chart/
[
unhealthy food] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://archives.deccanchronicle.com/130316/lifestyle-food/article/gorging-unhealthy-food-can-make-bad-mood-worse
[obese person on a scale] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-images-shocked-cartoon-hippo-scales-image9916349
[obese child eating chips] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://thelivedexperienceofdisability.wordpress.com/lived-experience-of-disability/
[obese family] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://readerwoman.wordpress.com/page/2/
[obese boy] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://www.theguardian.com/society/2009/nov/03/child-obesity-levelling-off
[
obese family] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://straightfromthea.com/2009/12/30/reality-show-alert-one-big-huge-happy-family/
[healthy food] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://inserbia.info/news/2013/12/healthy-food-that-may-cause-problems/
[obesity] retrieved February 6, 2014 from http://www.shutterstock.com/s/obesity/search.html
Questions

2. What states are trying to reduce childhood
obesity?
1.If a child still have their baby fat would that consider them obese?
3. What causes a child to become obese?
4. How can you prevent a child from becoming obese?
5. Is overweight the same as being obese?

6. What are the government trying to do to reduce obesity?
7.Should you put a obese child on a diet?
8. How can we as a society make a difference in obesity epidemic?
9. How can you get a child to eat their fruits and vegetables?
10. Do children have a greater risk of becoming obese adults?
11. What are healthy snacks for children?
12. Do some children have a greater risk of becoming obese?
13. What is the difference between poor nutrition and obesity?
14. How could a parent motivate a child to do more physical activity and make healthy food choice?
15. How much exercise should a child get?
16. How can a parent tell a child that they are obese without making them feel bad about themselves?
17. How can a parent limit the amount of food a child eat without always being with them?
18. Which is more likely to cause obesity DNA, poor diet, lack of exercise?
19. Why do some parent wait until the situation get worse rather than getting help immediately?
20. Why do some parent think that taking pills, or joining programs could help them lose weight fast?
21. is it true that balancing your diet and eating a little bit of everything could help a child lose weight?
Videos

Video 1
Obesity is a epidemic in the U.S. and a major cause of death. It causes heart disease and diabetes and a lot of health issues. One contributing factor is the way we eat over the last 50 years. 1 out of 3 adults and 1 out of six children are obese. The food that are in restaurant and vending machines have higher sugar, calories, and fat than we normally eat in our own homes.
Video 2

Video 3
Video 4

1 in 5 Preschoolers are consider overweight and half of those are obese. According to policy.org poverty leads to childhood obesity. The problem isn't the kids, it is cause by uneducated parents who often have financial stress. CDC said that a baby's risk of becoming an overweight child goes down with each month of breastfeeding. A child that is obese often experience depression, lack of energy, and low self-esteem.

The annual healthcare cost of obesity in the U.S is $147 billion a year. Two-thirds of Americans are overweight. 85% of Americans characterize their lifestyle as somewhat very healthy. 12 million Americans are consider severely obese. Nearly one-third of children in the U.S are overweight.
Exercise is one of the goal in Michelle Obama program ¨Lets Move¨ and another one is nutrition. The first lady is trying to reduce the amount of children that are obese, so that our children will live longer lives. In some schools she is promoting more healthier foods. She said 30 million Americans children get the majority of their calories from food they eat at school. Pediatricians said if health habits are lean at a younger age, obese children will slim down.
Video 5

Children spend a lot more time in front of TV, computer, rather than doing any physical activity. Physical education programs are being eliminated due to budget cut or testing and other subject. Recess is also being cut in elementary school. To reduce the amount of children that are obese, it does not take one solution but many. Good news is that their are a lot of people who are trying to reduce obesity.
Video 6

Obesity can lead to a lot death each year because of the health problems that are affecting kids. 300,000 death a year is cause by obesity. Increasing more physical activity in school and homes can decrease the rate of death each year. School should offer more healthier foods and at home parent should make healthy meals.
Video 7

Doctors say the most important thing to remember in obesity is that it is reversible in most kids. They also recommend that children drink no juice but rather fresh fruits. Limit visit to fast food restaurants, decrease TV time, video games, and computer. This is important for parent as well. After age two children are recommended not to use the stroller anymore but start walking around and being active.

Video 8

This video is about a obese child name Jessica,who is only eight years old and she weighs 420 pounds. She eats constantly, because she was so obese she could hardly walk so she had to roll around most of the time. Why she got obese because her mom gave her anything she wanted, and if she did not she would get mad and don't eat any other food. Her mom did not realize that excessive eating was putting her daughter in danger. One day she had problems breathing and had to be rush to the hospital, child protected service got involve. Eventually she was put on a diet and she got to a normal size. She do need surgery to remove the excess fat.
.
Video 9
This video is about another obese child who got picked on and couldn't take it anymore. The doctors warn her that she is facing a risk of having a lot of health problems. These health problems are diabetes, high blood pressure and etc could cut her life short. Overall she weighs 325 pounds. After that doctor visit she gained more weight. At 12 years old she is consider modernly obese. Her mother is now trying to cook more healthier meals.
Video 10
This video is about a after school program, the goal for this program is to reduce childhood obesity by 10% in 4 years. The children play a lot of fun games that get them moving, every child enjoys it. They burn fat and it help them stay in shape. One girl say that one thing doing a lot of exercise make her thirsty and drink a lot. But she think this program is fun and it is good for all children.
Overview
- Introduction
- Essential question: How many children in the United States are affected by obesity, and how can this number be reduced?
- PSA
- ACP
- videos
- statistics
- Background Information/ History
- health problems
- How to prevent it from happening
- Things to do if a child is obese
- Food to eat and Food not to eat
- The Process of obesity
- Conclusion
COVER PAGE





Childhood Obesity

Essential Question- How many children in the United Sates are affected by obesity, and how can this number be reduce?











Brittany Smith
Mrs. Lindinger and Mr. Zeiser
Senior Project
February 18, 2014


According to Tom Vilsack “The rise of childhood obesity has placed the health of an entire generation at risk”. The percentages of children from age’s 5-17-year old that are obese in the United States are 70%. This number can be reduce by promoting a healthy lifestyle. Parents are responsible for their child’s health, creating healthy eating habits can help a child have a healthy lifestyle as they mature and become an adult. Department of health says providing healthy meals and snack, daily physical activity, and nutrition education can reduce a child from becoming obese. Nutrition education helps young children develop an awareness of good nutrition and healthy eating habits for a lifetime. If parents discourage their children from eating in front of the TV it can also help promote a healthy lifestyle.

Childhood obesity is still an epidemic in the United States, although this country is no longer the first obese country it is still affecting children, causing them to have different illness that could affect them now and in the future. The United Sates is the second obese country and the first is Mexico. One way to reduce a child from getting obese is making them eat healthy snacks and exercising every day. Even if it is taking a child to the park to play with their friends or playing fun games as a family. This help a child to get motivated to try and lose the weight rather than sitting in the house play video games, watching TV, or on the computer for hours. The hours a child can be on a computer could be put forward to physical activities.
According to the New York Times, children who are obese are most likely to have an eating disorder. Signs to tell if a child has an eating disorder if they are constantly eating, keep on saying that they are hungry, and sneaking food after they just had a meal. America heart Association says that an obese child could have low self- esteem. In school children often get tease or bully about their weight by other students, this could lead to low-self-esteem and a risk of having depression. Low self-esteem can cause overwhelming feelings of hopelessness in some obese children. A depressed child may lose interest in normal activities, loss of sleep or cry a lot. Obese children are at risk for having health problem, such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, and type 2 diabetes. Therefore to reduce the health problems that is cause from being obese, parents need to encourage their kids to eat healthy and stay active (mayoclinic.org, 2012).
According to this article, Overweight in Children written by American Heart Association on November, 2013, obesity is causing a wide range of health problems. This includes high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and elevated blood cholesterol levels. It is also causing higher death rates in children at a young age. Kids are now spending less time exercising and more time in front of the TV, computer, and video games. Things kids are eating now are much quicker and easy from fast food to microwave and prepackaged meals. This is causing parent to stop cooking healthy meals for their children and spend more time microwaving every meal (newsroom.heart.org)

In another article When Obese Children Develop Eating Disorder, Doctors Often Don’t Notice written by Hope Reeves on September, 2013, obese adolescents are at significant risk of developing eating disorder. Adolescents who presented for eating disorder treatment had a history of obesity, and it took significantly longer for those patients to be identified compared with patients who did not have such a weight history. Doctors are so distracted by their charge to prevent obesity that they think any kind of weight loss is good. The number of overweight children under age five was estimated in 2010 to be more than 42 million. Study found that whilst consumption of fast food was linked to obesity in 13-15 year old, public health intervention that placed restriction on the location of fast food outlets did not uniformly decrease consumption. If kid’s starts to exercise, eat right, and get enough sleep it could cause them from being affected by obesity (Reeves, 2013).
Childhood obesity has more than double, from 7 percent to 18 percent and among adolescents it had more than tripled, from 5 percent to 18 percent. These children are more likely to have pre-diabetes, joint problems, sleep apnea, and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This could cause children to die at a young age because of lack of caring to eat right and exercise. If a child comes from a family of overweight people, he or she may be more likely to put on excess weight, especially in an environment where high-calorie food is always available and physical activity isn't encouraged. Some children overeat to cope with problems or to deal with emotions, such as stress, or to fight boredom. Their parents may have similar tendencies. Children who don't exercise much are more likely to gain weight because they don't burn calories through physical activity. Inactive leisure activities, such as watching television or playing video games, contribute to the problem (mayoclinic.org).
Since the 1960s the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has been tracking childhood overweight and obesity they found that between 1963 and 2008, rates of obesity among children between the ages of 2 and 19 have been inching upwards. From 1963 to 1970, 4.2 percent of 6 to 11 year olds and 4.6 percent of 12 to 19 year olds were obese. In 1988, 11.3 percent of 6 to 11 year olds and 10.5 percent of 12 to 19 year olds were obese. In 2001, just over 16 percent of 6 to 11 year olds were obese. The last survey, from 2007 to 2008, 19.6 and 18.1 percent of 6 to 11 and 12 to 19 year old kids were obese (cdc.gov).
Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or wellbeing. As methods to determine body fat directly are difficult, the diagnosis of obesity is often based on BMI (Wikipedia). BMI is a measurement of the relative percentages of fat and muscle mass in the human body, in which mass in kilograms is divided by height in meters squared and the result used as an index of obesity (thefreedictionary.com). Obesity affects certain minority youth populations. NHANES found that African American and Mexican American adolescents ages 12-19 were more likely to become overweight, at 21 percent and 23 percent respectively, than non-Hispanic White adolescents. Type 2 diabetes, which is linked to overweight and obesity and has increased dramatically in children and adolescents, particularly in American Indian, African American and Hispanic/Latino populations (Bishop and Middendorf, 2005).

Overweight adolescents have a 70 percent chance of becoming overweight or obese adults, which increases to 80 percent if one or more parent is overweight or obese. In 2000, the total cost of obesity for children and adults in the United States was estimated to be $117 billion. The causes of childhood obesity can provide the opportunity to focus resources, interventions and research in directions that would be most beneficial in addressing the problem. Trend data suggest some changes in eating patterns and consumption that may be correlated with increases in obesity (Bishop and Middendorf, 2005).
There are a lot of ways on how to fight obesity. The methods are safe, effective, and very affordable. The methods shown here may provide gradual results but they are safer than using medicines and invasive medical procedures. Another consideration is the person's metabolic rate. Each person has a different metabolic rate. According to health experts who practiced natural approaches, you should have additions or changes in the diet. Eating nutritious foods can help address weight loss. Another method is to have a regular exercise schedule. The third method is to use an effective natural diet supplement that can encompass numerous health issues involving obesity (wikihow.com).


Americans are spending $4.6 billion each year on potato chips, and 23.5 billion on candy and gum. 46 percent of adult eat out on a typical day, and one third choose fast food. That is because the fast food industry has slowly become one of the symbols of U.S culture. Commercials, signs, and advertisements are pushing junk food at us every day; people cannot even go to the grocery store without candy bars being lined up right by the checkout. A fast food meal, such as a Burger King Double Whopper with cheese, contains 965 calories; more than double the amount of fat, a healthy meal is more expensive than junk food. A burger at Burger King or Wendy’s cost 99 cent and a salad or other healthy snacks cost a lot more. The food today has more too much protein and fat and no fiber or vitamins (scribd.com).



Healthy lifestyle habits, including healthy eating and physical activity, can lower the risk of becoming obese and developing related diseases. Physical activity behaviors of children and adolescents are influenced by many sectors of society, including families, communities, schools, child care settings, medical care providers, faith-based institutions, government agencies, the media, and the food and beverage industries and entertainment industries. Schools play a particularly critical role by establishing a safe and supportive environment with policies and practices that support healthy behaviors. Schools also provide opportunities for students to learn about and practice healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. Treating and preventing childhood obesity helps protect the health of a child now and in the future (cdc.gov).
Being physically active not only has positive effects on body weight, but also on blood pressure and bone strength. It also has been shown that physically active children are more likely to remain physically active into adolescence and adulthood. Limit consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages such as soda, sports drinks, and non-natural fruit juice. Parents encouraging their children to drink water or low-fat milk instead. Serving a wide variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products. Provide children with a variety of foods to ensure they receive all the nutrients needed for proper growth and development (ext.colostate.edu).
In conclusion even though there are a lot of fast food places such as burger king, Wendy’s and etc. Eating fast food all the time can lead to becoming obese. Also buying frozen food that is already cook is unhealthy. Eating fast food once in a while will not affect or lead to becoming obese but eating it all the time can. To stop causing a child to become obese making them exercise for at least an hour every day and eating a healthy home cook meal can reduce a child from becoming obese and having health problems that could affect them for a lifetime.


Health risks that can affect children at a young age are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, breathing problems, joint and musculoskeletal discomfort, and etc. Health risk that can affect a child later in life is becoming an obese adult that could cause a lot of problems that could affect a person for their entire life. Having different solution can help decrease childhood obesity, like reducing how much calories a person might eat each day. Writing down the calories in different food could keep track of what a person eats each day. It could help children or an obese adult who was an obese child eat less (cdc.com).
Also increasing the amount of exercise a child does every day could help decrease the risk of become an obese adult in the future. If a child might exercise one hour a day increase the time to two or three hours a day. This will help a child to stay fit and active every day and not focus on sitting down and watching TV or eating snacks every hour. Decreasing a lot of technology use item around the house like watching TV, playing video games, and a microwaving a lot of food. Less microwaving food and frozen food and more healthy home cooked meals, and plenty of fruits, water, and vegetables.

A child needs a parent or guardian help to stay on track, and also the help from others like teachers and other peers. Without a parent or other peers to help them stay on track they will end up going back from where they started. In school having more gym class and more health classes could also guide a child. Today a child might only have gym class for one year, but they have to take Math and English all for years. Exercising every day is very important like taking Math, English, and Science for a whole four years. Since there are not a lot of gym classes in school, there are more obese child than ever.
Children are not getting enough exercise and no one is helping them to stay on the right track. School and the government are more concern about having a good test scores on every standardize test, but they are less concern about physical activities in school. Not only does physical activity help a child stay in shape it also strengthen a kid’s brain and help them focus better in school. They should let gym class mandatory for every child in school, so that they could stay fit and healthy, and later in life they do not have any type of diseases. Getting fitter, kids should gain knowledge and skills from gym class that will help them take charge of their fitness for the rest of their lives. They should learn things like how to warm up and cool down, the proper form for calisthenics, the differences between aerobic exercise and strength training, and how to create a well-rounded exercise program for themselves (organicgardening.com).

Obesity also poses a tremendous financial threat to our economy and our health care system. The medical cost of adult obesity in the United States is difficult to calculate, but estimates range from $147 billion to nearly $210 billion per year. Childhood obesity alone carries a huge price tag up to $14 billion per year in direct health care costs. Retired military leaders warn that childhood obesity also threatens our national security because so many young people who want to serve in the armed forces are not fit to do so (healthyeatingresearch.org).
It is not just at home a child has to eat healthy, it’s at school and other public places. An obese child needs the help of everyone around him/her, and parent, teachers, and etc. need to encourage them that eating healthy is important. It is easy for a child today to gain a lot of weight because of the amount of fat and sugar they put in foods. Different companies who make these food or products do not care about the affect it is going to have on people; all they care about is the money. Since a child is mostly around its parent, the parent needs to always cook a healthy cook meal for their kids. That contains vegetables and other healthy food, some parents are constantly busy so they think the easy way to make meals are getting frozen food that could put in the microwave and heat up quickly.

Children and also adults need to eat healthy to maintain their body shape and also stay healthy, not only could they live a long time but do not have many diseases like an unhealthy person would. The best thing you can do to help your child achieve the healthy body that is just right for them is by creating healthy habits for the entire family. Five serving of fruits and vegetable everyday contain many nutrients that a child's body needs and they should be taking the place of high calorie food from a child's daily food menu. The Canadian Community Health Survey data indicates that children who watch more than 2 hours of screen time TV, computer, video games per day have double the risk of becoming overweight and obesity when compared to children who watch less than 1 hour per day (childhoodobesityfoundation.ca).
There is significant improvement in both physical and mental health when children and teenagers obtain their required 60 minutes of physical activity per day. Half of 5-17 year olds are not reaching activity levels sufficient for optimal growth and development. Providing children with plain milk and water to drink. Fruit juice should be limited to one small glass per day. Fruit juice contains the sugar of fruit but at higher amounts than in fresh fruit since it takes many fruits to make one glass of juice. Parents need replace a fruit juice with an actual fruit and pack water or milk in your child's school lunch instead of a juice box (childhoodobesityfoundation.ca).


Gym classes should be structured to keep kids moving in activities that keep their heart rates elevated for at least 30 minutes, that’s how fitness levels improve. Jogging, swimming, and basketball are the types of activities that can provide continuous, vigorous movement. Learning these things starts at home, to help make your kids to be fit and healthy, the parent need to set a good example by turning off the TV and spending time being active with their children. Go for family walks or bike rides; spend an afternoon at a park or playground, and etc. A recent study reported on Rodale.com shows that kids tend to be more active when spending time with peers; encouraging this by having your kids invite friends over or planning active outings for the group can help (organicgardening.com).

Jessica Leonard is an eight year old girl who weighs 420 pounds. She was so obese that she could not walk like other young children; she had to roll around to get things she needs. Her mother would constantly give her anything she wanted because if she did not Jessica would get mad. According to her mother she did not realize that excessive eating would affect her child. She said “All parents makes mistakes, there is no perfect parent, but I made a mistake that could cost my child her life” Jessica started having breathing problems and had to be rush to the hospital. At the hospital child protective service took over, and she was transfer to the obesity clinic in Virginia. Their she was put on strict diet she could not eat what she usually ate. Since she started changing her eating pattern and started doing exercise, she lost 320 pound without doing any surgeries. Although she lost a lot of weight without doing any surgery, she do need surgery to remove all the excess fat on her arms, stomach, and etc. To continue to stay in shape and stop her urge to eat drunk food, Jessica attends physical therapy five times a week. She still wants to eat other unhealthy food what she use to eat when she was obese, but her mother is their to stop her. Eating unhealthy is not good for your body, but there is a way that it could to stop it just by eating healthy and exercising (youtube.com/watch).


Bibliography
"Childhood Obesity Facts." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 10 July 2013. Web. 13 Feb. 2014.
"Childhood Obesity." Definition. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.
Marks, Shannon. "The History of Obesity in Children." LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG.COM, 24 Oct. 2013. Web. 14 Feb. 2014.
"Childhood Obesity." Childhood Obesity. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2014.
"Tips for Parents – Ideas to Help Children Maintain a Healthy Weight." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 31 Oct. 2011. Web. 15 Feb. 2014.
"Robert Wood Johnson Foundation." RWJF. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2014.
"What Every Family Can Do: The 5-2-1-0 Rule." What Families Can Do. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.





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