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Copy of Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial
Transcript of Copy of Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial
Procedural methods were normed as percentiles, or likelihood of occurrence. As reported by Lezak (1983), Osterreith defined the adult's average score on the copy production to be 32 and on the recall production to be 22 Scoring and Interpretation 18 units of the drawing and assigned point values of 0 to 2 to each unit depending upon the degree to which the units are correctly drawn and placed. Osterreith evaluated organizational structure in the context of seven different procedural types Validity The RCFT has high construct validity. It identifies visuospatial, memory, speed of processing and visuoconstructional problems in healthy and unhealthy clients. IR and DR conditions also involve similar underlying cognitive functions. RCFT is sensitive to visual-spatial impairments in healthy and clinical populations such as Alzheimer’s disease patients (Zec, as cited in Groth-Marnat, 2000). Certain drawing systems, such as, perceiving the figure as a whole, are more popular than others (Akshoomoff et al., 2002), making unusual methods and visuospatial problems easily identifiable (Mitrushina et al., 2005).Furthermore, the test’s complexity renders memory and verbal aids ineffective. This makes it sensitive to memory problems as it is taxing on memory (Strauss & Spreen, as cited in Strauss et al., 2006). Indeed, encoding, storage and recovery of memory could be evaluated during the test’s four trials (Shin et al., 2006). These four trials are also sensitive to diverse impairments. People who developed amnesia due to different causes displayed different organisation, perceptions and memories of the figure (Kixmiller et al., as cited in Strauss et al 2006). Extended Complex Figure Test (ECFT) LIMITATIONS 1. The reliance on constructional ability can confound interpretations about memory
2. Results may also be confused if reporter does not take perceptual problems into account
3. It is difficult to know the reason why recall is defective because the test does not discriminate between encoding and retrieval
4. *Different test versions have various administration criteria. Also, RCFT scoring is subjective and interpretation is complex due to the numerous skills the RCFT involves ...variability reduces the test’s standardisation as results cannot be directly compared to the original RCFT
5. Excludes people with physical disabilities Different RCFT versions have been developed over time, each with specific administration and scoring criteria. Not all include Copy, Immediate Recall (IR), Delayed Recall (DR) and Recognition trials (Mitrushina et al., 2005) and different time periods are allowed to elapse between Copy and Recall conditions.
The subject is first instructed to copy the figure, which has been so set out that its length runs along the subject's horizontal plane. The examiner watches the subject's performance closely. Each time the subject completes a section of the drawing, the examiner hands him a different colored pencil and notes the order of colors.... Time to completion is recorded and both test figure and the subject's drawings are removed. This is usually followed by one or more recall trials. (P.395) Materials *120-page Professional Manual
~ Information on the development of the RCFT materials
~ Administration and scoring procedures with scoring examples
~ Demographically corrected normative data
~ Guidelines for interpretation with case illustrations
~ Reliability and validity data
*Manual Supplement with data for children and adolescents
* Laminated RCFT Stimulus Card
~8.5" x 11"; computer-rendered replica of the original Rey complex figure
* 16-page RCFT Test Booklet
~ Pages for the three freehand drawing trials (Copy, Immediate Recall, and Delayed Recall) and the Recognition trial (perforated for easy detachment)
Required for administration: A stopwatch History and Use First proposed by Swiss psychologist André Rey in 1941 and further standardized by Paul-Alexandre Osterrieth in 1944, it is frequently used to further elucidate any secondary effect of brain injury in neurological patients, to test for the presence of dementia, or to study the degree of cognitive development in children.Osterreith standardized the administration procedure, obtained normative data from 230 normal children and 60 adults, and provided interpretative guidance* visuospatial abilities, memory, attention, planning, and working memory (executive functions) Compared to Other Similar Tests The RCFT relates to other memory and visual constructional tests, such as the Token Test, BVRT total correct and RAVLT Trial 5. It assesses similar abilities and functions as the Hooper Visual Organisation Test (HVOT), Line Orientation, and Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices. However, unlike the RCFT, the latter test does not require motor skills (Strauss et al., 2006).Its effectiveness is superior over easier drawing tasks assessing similar functions, such as spatial construction skills in Block design of the WAIS-III, copying in the Bender-Gestalt test, and visual integration in the HVOT (Meyers & Meyers, 1995). Yet, RCFT scores are often more similar to Block Design than HVOT scores (Jassal & Hubley, 2003). Reliability The RCFT has high interrater reliability (Meyers & Meyers, 1995) despite its subjective scoring (Mitrushina et al., 2005). This may be because examiners abide to standardised administration, and score consistently leniently or harshly (Bennett-levy 1984 as cited in (Mitrushina et al., 2005).Test-retest reliability is low since ceiling effects increase Copy and Recognition scores (Groth-Marnat, 2000). When tested after one month scores increased by 10% (Spreen & Strauss, 1998), possibly because participants recalled the figure and memorised its components (Meyers & Meyers, 1995). However, practice effects were not maintained as performance decreased after one year (Berry et al., as cited in Strauss et al., 2006). Internal consistency reliability is not addressed in the RCFT manual. Yet, studies show that spit-half and alpha coefficients of the figure’s 18 elements are consistent (Rapport et al., as cited in Groth-Marnat, 2000). The Extended Complex Figure Test (ECFT) retains the strengths and overcomes the limitations of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), a standard measure of perceptual organization and visual memory in brain-injured individuals. By adding Recognition and Matching Trials to the CFT's design copying task, the ECFT allows clinicians to distinguish perceptual operations from constructional skills, and encoding processes from retrieval processes. This gives the ECFT greater diagnostic sensitivity. The ECFT is useful not only in evaluating the effects of head injury, stroke, seizure, various medical conditions, and exposure to neurotoxins, but also in differentiating depression from dementia; distinguishing dementia-related memory deficits from normal, age-related memory lapses; and identifying aspects of memory functioning relevant to rehabilitation. What does the ECFT give you? Like the CFT, the ECFT asks the patient to copy a complex geometric figure onto a blank sheet of paper and then assesses his or her immediate and delayed recall of the figure. Unlike the CFT, the ECFT then adds a forced-choice recognition task (preserving orientation) and a stimulus matching task using elements from the original figure. Testing time is 15 to 20 minutes, with a delay interval of 30 minutes.
These procedures yield 11 scores: Design Copy Total ScoreRecognition Total Score Immediate Recall Recognition GlobalDelayed RecallRecognition DetailMatching Total ScoreRecognition Left DetailMatching Left DetailRecognition Right DetailMatching Right Detail
Age-stratified norms are provided as scaled scores for adults, based on a sample of 239 men and women (ages 19 to 85), or means with standard deviations for children, based on a sample of 76 children (ages 6 to 18). A short version of the ECFT, requiring no motor skills and just 10 to 15 minutes, provides only the 8 Recognition and Matching scores. This version can be used with patients who have limited motor ability or are easily fatigued. ECFT Method, Scoring, and Norms