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The Opium Wars

by Lauren Hammett, Casey Scheffler, and Catie Mann
by

Lauren H

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of The Opium Wars

The Opium Wars by Lauren Hammett, Casey Scheffler, and Catie Mann P.E.M.S. Long Term Effect?
Historiogrpahy Is it a long term effect of
the Chinese Civil War? Orthodox Historiography Liberal Historiogrpahy Social Economic Military Political Causes & Background Treaty of Nanjing Causes & Background What were they? The wars occurred from 1839-42 and 1856-60

The British exported large amounts of opium to China in return for all the Chinese tea they imported

The Chinese government decided to outlaw it because it wasn't good for officials, officers, or other Chinese citizens, and the British were annoyed about losing all that money from exports Lin Zexu went to Canton to end the opium trade; when British made it difficult, Lin Zexu destroyed the British supply of opium there

British sent military and naval forces from India and the two groups started fighting (June 1840)

Chinese (Qing Dynasty) ended up having to agree to the Treaty of Nanjing

Second Opium War was 1856-1858 and eventually led to the Treaty of Tianjin, another unequal treaty that allowed foreign countries to take advantage of China Treaty of Nanjing forced China to open five ports

10 million pounds of silver were paid to the British

Hong Kong was surrendered to British control, British merchants moved in and the ports opened up to foreign trade

Free trade for the British was allowed, import taxes were lowered

This treaty led to to more treaties that eventually opened up China to the world and led China to a more capitalistic economy The introduction of opium into China caused many issues in terms of politics and the government. Once the Opium Wars were fought and lost, China was opened up to the western world and was struggling to keep up (1). Because of this, many people in China began to turn towards ideas of a new political system for China (2). The original attempt to transition to a more modern form of government failed because the traditional government heads were kept (2). People believed a completely new governmental policy was needed for China (2). The effect of the Opium Wars was extremely detrimental to the Chinese economy. The introduction of western goods and trade destroyed the Chinese self-sufficiency (1). The western goods were lower priced, and the Chinese couldn't keep up with it (2). Due to skyrocketing food prices and higher unemployment level, many Chinese became impoverished (2). Industries such as textile and agriculture suffered immensely (1). Although the opening of China's ports allowed for the transition to capitalism, it very nearly destroyed the original economy in the process (2). After the Opium Wars, the Chinese military was defeated. They were shown to be disorganized and outdated in technique and weaponry (1). The addiction to opium also led the judgement and competence of many military officials to be questioned (2). After China was forced to sign the many treaties opening her ports, the military was powerless to defend her (3). China became a hotbed of crime and espionage for other countries (3). Along with the government, people in China began to realize that drastic change was needed in order to get China out of its depression (3). The social impact of the Opium Wars was surprisingly large for Chinese society. The treaties signed after the wars allowed for British and other foreign merchants to live in Chinese ports, which for many Chinese was their first contact with westerners (1). The collapse of the economy led to poverty for Chinese citizens (2). The lack of military and the second treaty signed led to increased criminal activity and troubles in many port cities (2). People were becoming restless with their situations and these problems led to uprisings against the government (2). ----We agree that the Opium War led to the overall cause of the Chinese Civil War because the treaties caused economic problems and political instability that in turn led to the Chinese Civil War.
----. Food became much more expensive as many farmers also left agriculture to work with tea or silk.
----Imports also increased, including Western clothing, which put many textile workers in China out of business as well.
----It was the farmers who had to pay reparations to other countries after the Opium Wars ended.
----The government was clearly not providing for their people, and many thought they could have put up more of a fight before signing the treaties, so the uprisings began and eventually led to the war There are orthodox, and traditional views and sources that discuss the original facts of the Opium War with little analysis, such as The Inner Opium War, which takes a very orthodox view. There is historiography on the Opium War, much written as liberal such as revisionism of the war such as films, an example being “The Opium War” made in 1997 in China. This took a liberal view, discussing new ideas about the Opium War. Yong Liu, Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450, vol. 2 (Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007), s.v. "Opium Wars," accessed January 3, 2013, http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&source=&search_within_results=&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CCX2587300322 Alan Baumler, Encyclopedia of Modern Asia, ed. Karen Christensen and David Levinson, vol. 4 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002), accessed January 3, 2013, http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&source=&search_within_results=&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CCX3403702231 Footnotes:

(1) Liu Yong. "Opium Wars." Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism Since 1450. 878-80.
(2) Shandra Goldfinger. "Lasting Effects of the Opium Wars." World Politics 116. Footnotes:

(1) Liu Yong. "Opium Wars." Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism Since 1450. 878-80.
(2) Shandra Goldfinger. "Lasting Effects of the Opium Wars." World Politics 116. Footnotes

(1) Shirley Ye Sheng and Eric H. Shaw. The Evil Trade That Opened China to the West. Quinnipiac University.
(2) Liu Yong. "Opium Wars." Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism Since 1450. 878-80.
(3) Shandra Goldfinger. "Lasting Effects of the Opium Wars." World Politics 116. Footnotes

(1) Liu Yong. "Opium Wars." Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism Since 1450. 878-80.
(2) Shandra Goldfinger. "Lasting Effects of the Opium Wars." World Politics 116. "The Inner Opium War," Google Books, accessed January 04, 2013, http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Inner_Opium_War.html?id=3-GILbpJUv0C. 1. 1 1 "2013 Seattle International Film Festival," 2013 Seattle International Film Festival, accessed January 04, 2013, http://www.siff.net/festival/film/detail.aspx?id=28850. 1 1 1 Goldfinger, Shandra. "Lasting Effects of the Opium Wars." World Politics 116. Mount Holyoke College, 2006. Web. 03 Jan. 2013. 1 Yong Liu, Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450, vol. 2 (Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007), s.v. "Opium Wars," accessed January 3, 2013, http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&source=&search_within_results=&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CCX2587300322 Alan Baumler, Encyclopedia of Modern Asia, ed. Karen Christensen and David Levinson, vol. 4 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002), accessed January 3, 2013, http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&source=&search_within_results=&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CCX3403702231
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