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Bio - Organic Macromolecules

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Teresa Friedrichsen

on 24 September 2016

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Transcript of Bio - Organic Macromolecules

Organic Macromolecules
Polymers
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids or Fats
Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA
made of C, H, O, N & S
monomers are amino acids
shape determines function
different functions
enzymes
hemoglobin
hormones
molecular machines
20 different "R" groups means 20 different amino acids
made of C, H & O
monomers are monosaccharides
polymers are polysaccharides
functions
polymers are triglycerides
polymers are polynucleotides
functions
functions
made of C, H, O, N & P
monomers are nucleotides
two monosaccharides bonded together form disaccharides
quick energy in monosaccharides
stored energy in polysaccharides like starch (plants) & glycogen (animals)
2. Structure
plant cell walls - cellulose
fungus cell walls & insect skeletons - chitin
2. form membranes
1. energy storage in C-H bonds
3. Insulation
types of triglycerides
1. saturated
found in animal fats like bacon, cheese, butter
no C=C bonds
2. unsaturated
found in plant oils
contains at least 1 C=C
1. genetic information
2. making proteins
organic: contains H & C in same molecule
monomer + monomer + monomer = polymer
making polymers
breaking polymers
dehydration synthesis or condensation
water is removed between monomers
useful in growing and building cells & structures
"loss of water" and " put together"
hydrolysis
"water splitting"
water is added & chemical processes break bond between monomers
useful for digestion & energy release
Enzymes
polymers are polypeptides
Peptide bond = covalent bond between amino acids
2 aa’s – Dipeptide – NOT di-amino acids!
many aa’s - Polypeptide - NOT poly-amino acids!
Each protein has a specific & unique shape
Some fold into “globs” others fold into fibers
Each protein has a specific & unique function as a result of its shape
“Whatever needs doing is done by proteins: and a protein’s form dictates its function.”
Shape
movement
millions of kinds!
20 amino acids can be linked in any order
polypeptides can be thousands of amino acids long!

Monomers of Neutral fat:
1 glycerol
3 fatty acids
Fats Are Nonpolar
C & H share electrons equally: no areas of partial charge
Nonpolar molecules
Are repelled by polar (water)
Pushed toward other nonpolar (fats)
http://www.natural-health-information-centre.com/trans-fats.html
Molecule bends, enzymes can access
Molecule straight, enzymes can not access
Oil heated, H gas bubbled though, double bonds broken, H’s add in different ways
Other Fats
Wax – beeswax, earwax
Steroids
Hormones
Cholesterol
Chlorophyll
made of H, C, O but few O's
"Trans" Fats
NUCLEOTIDE
POLYNUCLEOTIDE
polymer shape
DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid double (stranded) helix
RNA - Ribonucleic Acid can be single stranded; straight or twisted
5 C sugar
Nitrogenous base
phosphate
Catalysts in living organisms that speed up chemical reactions (10,000,000,000 times!)
Enzyme Shape
Usually made of protein
Protein’s shape determines its function!!
http://www.chemistry.wustl.edu/~edudev/LabTutorials/HIV/DrugStrategies.html
Steps in Enzyme Action
enzyme can react with another substrate- can be recycled over & over
Naming
Name usually ends in ”ase”
Often named after substrate ex. sucrase
6 e-, 6p+, 6n - ; how many e- in outer orbital?
ALWAYS makes 4 covalent bonds
1. CARBON
Can form single, double, or triple bonds
Extremely versatile: forms rings, chains, branches
How many electrons in outer orbital?
How many bonds?
2. O has 8 p,n,e:
How many electrons in outer orbital?
How many bonds?
3. N has 7 p,n,e:

Carbs, fats, proteins, & NA are all organic macromolecules
these molecules are all polymers and form the basis for living cells
macromolecules are made from smaller molecules bonded together
-H
with H's
substrate fits specifically in active site
product is formed as enzyme twists or squeezes bonds in substrate
product is released
enzyme gets together with a specific substrate
5 min
5 min polymers
8.5 min sulfuric acid + sugar
monomer
hydrolysis
dimer
dehydration synthesis
monomer
water
+
+
1. Energy
-H
skin & nails
NOT ENERGY!!
collagen
saturated
single
straight
solid
unsaturated
double
wiggly
liquid
H-O-C-C-C-C-C-C-C
=O
H-O-C-C=C-C=C-C=C
=O
add H's where possible
8 min amoeba
Full transcript