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Grade 11 Biology

"The development and use of technology to maintain human health are based, in part, on the changing needs of society."

Carol LAM

on 29 September 2012

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Transcript of Grade 11 Biology

Acid Reflux in USA caused by Obesity American Gastroenterological Association What is Acid Reflux? Acid reflux occurs when the muscle of our esophagus does not work properly. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) controls the flow of luminal contents between the esophagus and stomach, and works as a physical barrier against the occurrence of acid reflux. If the LES contracts and relaxes at the wrong time, reopens or closes incompletely, it will allow gastric acid to flow into the esophagus. This may cause heartburn, injury to the lining of the esophagus and create problems like bleeding or difficulties with breathing. Acid reflux is actually different from heart burn, even though people nowadays consider them the same. Acid reflux is the action when acid flows into the esophagus, while heart burn is just a sensation. People who experience acid reflux more then twice a week will be consider as suffering from Gastroesophageal Reflux disease (GERD), which is a chronic and progressive disease that may cause other more serious complications. Cause A number of causes of acid reflux:
- cigarette and alcohol -pregnancy
- unhealthy eating habits (large meals) -obesity
- live style (lying down immediately after meals)

Out of all the causes, obesity is one of the most common causes for acid reflux. A large-scale study which followed thirty thousand people in Norway for 11 years shows that the increasing number of patients suffering form acid reflux may be linked to a rise in obesity rates. "The inter-abdominal pressure that goes along with being obese allows for more reflux," said Dr. Gerard Mullin. Another research tells that as BMI rate rises, so does the occurrence of acid reflux symptoms. Explanation for this is when excess body fat compresses the stomach, the mouth of the stomach is pushed open. The pressure of extra weight around the middle, as a result of diets high in fat, increases the likelihood of developing acid reflux. Although more research has to be done before we can be sure about the link between obesity and acid reflux, it is statistically true that losing weight can help reduce symptoms. Symptoms and Preventions How Serious can Acid Relfux be? ACID REFLUX
- heart burn, chest pain
-stomach acid flowing into the
- pain worsens at rest
-lose of gravity allows acid to
reflux more easily
- hoarseness after meal
~ acid may irritate the vocal cord
making your voice husky - chronic cough
-acid gets into your lungs and makes
you cough
- extra saliva
-body wants to wash out the irritants
in the esophagus
- difficulty swallowing
-swelling of LES results narrowing of
the esophagus
- bitter taste in throat
-acid flows from stomach to the throat
- avoid cigarette smoking
-nicotine relaxes the esophageal sphincter
- avoid alcohol
-it relaxes the LES and makes the stomach
produce more acid
- avoid big meals
-after big meals, food has nowhere to go but up
since the stomach is overloaded
- avoid eating shortly before bed
-acid flows in the esophagus easily with
gravity(lying down) - control weight
-obesity causes acid reflux
- avoid fatty foods
-they increase acid secretion,
slowing down the emptying of
the stomach Esophagitis: severe acid reflux may cause stomach acid to continually come into contact with the esophagus, leading to ulcers or bleeding in the esophagus

Barrett’s esophagus: chronic, untreated severe acid reflux or esophagitis can lead to Barrett’s esophagus, or cell abnormalities in the esophagus. This means healthy esophagus cells turn into cells that are not normally found in the esophagus. In less than 1% of cases, Barrett’s esophagus was the precursor for cancer of the esophagus. Barrett’s esophagus is treated by preventing acid from getting into the esophagus

Strictures: when severe acid reflux damages the lining of the esophagus, the esophagus can become scarred. That scar tissue, narrows the esophagus, and the narrowing is called strictures. The tightening of strictures prevents food and drink from reaching the stomach

Esophageal cancer: more common in men, esophageal cancer is a disease in which cancer cells are found in the tissue of the esophagus. Esophageal cancer is usually the result of severe acid reflux, GERD, Barrett’s esophagus, alcoholism, and/or smoking. While cancer of the esophagus has no symptoms in its early stages, over time patients will experience difficulty swallowing, weight loss, and painful swallowing. TECHNOLOGY that help acid reflux patients Are there treatments for acid reflux? Medical Treatment:

i)Histamine Receptor Antagonists - it decreases the amount of acid the stomach produces, and is used to treat stomach that produces too much acid and conditions in which acid comes up into the esophagus [e.g. Axid, Pepcid, Zantac etc.]

ii) Antacid - it neutralize acid in our stomach, coat the surface of the esophagus with protective barrier against the acid, produce a gel on the surface of the stomach to stop acid form leaking up [e.g. Chooz, Tums, Tagamet, etc.] iii) Proton Pump Inhibitors - block acid production more effectively and for a longer period of time than the H2 blockers, also protecting the esophagus from acid so that esophageal inflammation can heal [e.g. Nexium, Prevacid, Prilosec etc.]

iv) Promotility Agents - stimulate the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, speed up digestion in order to prevents acid from staying in the stomach for too long, strengthen the LES [e.g. Reglan] Surgery Treatment:

i) Fundoplication Surgery - the upper part of the stomach is gathered, wrapped and sutured around the lower part of the esophagus. This allows the lower part of the esophagus to pass through a small tunnel made from the stomach muscle, help to prevent acid reflux and strengthen the valve between the esophagus and stomach

ii) Radiofrequency Treatment - by sending radiofrequency energy to create a thermal lesions in the LES and the uppermost part of the stomach. This will lead to tissue constriction and will improve the thickness of the muscle wall in these areas. It will result in a reduction of acid reflux because the LES doesn't relax when it shouldn't and LES pressure is increased. It is more usual for patients that have a more serious problem with their esophagus like Barrett's esophagus Can technology help? The above video show and explain the process of the Transoral Incisionless Fundoplication Procedure (TIF). It also tells how it help to stop acid reflux. This video briefly show the steps of the Radiofrequency Treament. Community How is the helping acid reflux patients? Technology According to an article in ScienceDaily, a new treatment is invented and offered in Mayo Clinic in Florida. Magnetic titanium beads will be implanted into the body using the minimally invasive surgery method. The beads will wrap round the join between the stomach and the esophagus. The magnetic attraction between the beads is strong enough to keep the LES close, but weak enough to let food can pass through it. "I expect this device to be a game changer for the treatment of GERD in select patients who have failed management with drugs," says Dr. Smith, an
internationally recognized expert on the
treatment of GERD. Education Social Laws Programs Work Cited Christian Nordqvist (20th April 2009), What Is Acid Reflux? What Causes Acid Reflux?, Medical News Today, Retrieved September 23, 2012, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/146619.php

Carol Ann Quibell(2009), Acid Reflux is not fun!, ElderlyElder, Retrieved September 23, 2012, from http://www.elderlyelder.com/acid-reflux.html

Dr. Douglas Renton(August 26, 2012), The difference between acid reflux and GERD, BismarckTribune, Retrieved September 23,2012, form http://bismarcktribune.com/lifestyles/health-med-fit/the-difference-between-acid-reflux-and-gerd/article_31653b1a-ecdf-11e1-8c1d-001a4bcf887a.html

Dorica Lopez(May 25, 2012), Important Facts to Know about Acid Reflux Disease, HeratburnBay, Retrieved September 23, 2012, from http://www.heartburnbay.com/acid-reflux-disease/

Sharon Gillson(January 16, 2008), Top Treatments, About, Retrieved Spetember 23, 2012, from http://heartburn.about.com/od/treatment/tp/treating_hrtbrn.htm

Doctors of Loss Weight(December 24, 2011), More Acid Reflux, is Obesity to Blame?, Retrieved September 23, 2012, from http://doctorsofweightloss.com/more-acid-reflux-is-obesity-to-blame-5951

Carrie Gann(December. 21, 2011), Reports of Frequent Heartburn Double, Study Finds, ABC News, Retrieved September 23, 2012, from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/acid-reflux-rise-study-finds/story?id=15208938#.UE1GtY2PVGQ

Lara Salah(December 23, 2012), Reports of Acid Reflux Symptoms Double, Study Finds, ABC News, Retrieved September 23, 2012, from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/Wellness/acid-reflux-rates-parallel-obesity-epidemic/story?id=15240663#.UF83Ao2PVAA

ScienceDaily (Apr. 11, 2012), Newly Approved Treatment for Acid Reflux Disease Available, Reterieved September 23, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/04/120411131947.htm

Miranda Hitti (August. 1, 2005), Obesity, Acid Reflux Disease Linked?, WebMD Health News, Retrieved September 23, 2012, from http://www.webmd.com/heartburn-gerd/news/20050801/obesity-acid-reflux-disease-linked

American Gastroenterological Association (2012), Retrieved Sepmtember 23, 2012, from http://www.gastro.org/education-meetings/online-education

Associated Press (June 21,2012), American Medical Assoc.: Require obesity education for kids, USA Today News, Retrieved September 29, 2012, from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/health/story/2012-06-21/ama-obesity-children/55737242/1 The US government has started to considerate using laws to control obesity. Some states are considering to have laws over the selling of soda and candy in public schools, requiring fast-food chains to post fat and sugar content on all menu boards, and even increase the tax on fatty and sugary foods. As we know, obesity is one
of the major reason of acid reflux, so
controlling obesity can effectively
decrease the number of people
suffering from acid reflux. Symptoms of acid reflux: Preventions: What is
OBESITY? A person is obese when his/her
Body Mass Index (BMI)
{ } is thirty and above. This indicates an excess of body fat, which is unhealthy. According to the NCHS Data Brief of January 2012, thirty seven point five percent of Americans are considered as obese in 2009-2010. The graph also shows an increasing number
every year. "More than half the people in 39 U.S. states will be obese...by 2030"
-- South Florida Times. The US federal government have set up the Center for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC) to monitor health, investigate health problems and do research on preventive measures. They provide obesity prevention strategies for program managers, policy makers, and others. The US government is already taking actions on controlling obesity, however, there are no recommendations for the society on how to control acid reflux. They can add a section in the CDC about acid reflux, or some information on how obesity in related to acid reflux.This can raise the attention of the public on acid reflux, thus lowering the number
of acid reflux patients. "The nation's largest physicians group [American Medical Association] agreed to support legislation that would require classes in causes, consequences and prevention of obesity for first through 12th graders." - USA TodayNews. Educating the public is a very effective way to reduce the percentage of obesity, hence, reduce the amount of acid reflux patients. Warning the next generation about how obesity can lead to other health problems can persuade them to take preventions. Although many Americans are considered as obese, nobody had ever proposed of
having nutrition education in school. This is the
time for a change, and for people to have
more knowledge about obesity. New
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