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Nature of Human Body

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Jae Hyun Kim

on 15 January 2014

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Transcript of Nature of Human Body

Exploring Human Body
Jae Hyun Kim

Digestive System
Function
The major function of Digestive system is to
dissociate the food molecules
so that they are adequate to be used as energy source for cells
Mouth
: Non Accessory organ

The food first enters through mouth. Here, the food is broken down by
chewing
and smoothed by addition of
saliva
. By the time mouth finishes its job, the food is ready to be swallowed
Salivary Glands
: Accessory Organ
Salivary glands create saliva, which are used to make the
food smooth
and easier to digest. These saliva have specific enzymes that slightly digests the food molecules.
Pharynx
: Accessory Organ

The pharynx is kind of like the
final gate
that leads the food towards
esophagus
. To prevent the food from flowing into windpipe, epiglottis points downward.
Esophagus
: Accessory Organ

This is like the tunnel for the foods. The foods travel down the esophagus as
it contracts its muscles to allow the food to move
through easily. Esophageal Sphincter, only allows food to pass when it is swallowed and the muscle is relaxed.
Stomach
: Non Accessory Organ

The
Cardiac Sphincter
, which contracts and relaxes to ensure that
food does not travel the opposite way
, relaxes. The stomach pours
acidic gastric juice
and enzymes to dissociate the food molecules. Food molecules are then suit to pass down to small intestine.
Gastric Juice
:

In the stomach,
gastric juice
is released to break down food molecules. These juices are very
acidic
and contain
numerous enzymes
. The enzymes are responsible to break down proteins into amino acids. Then, these amino acids are ready to be absorbed as nutrients in the small intestine
Duodenum
:non accessory organ, small intestine part 1

After passing the
pyloric sphincter
, which is like a door between stomach and the duodenum, the food enters duodenum. Here, the food
interact with juices from gallbladder, pancreas and liver
Liver, Pancreas and Gall Bladder
: accessory organs

Pancreas
secretes enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin that enter the duodenum and breaks down food.
Gallbladder
concentrates and stores bile. Bile has blood cells that are no longer in use, and therefore is combined with food molecule as part of feces.
Liver
is where the bile is produced. Bile digests, absorbs fats and then is stored in the Gallbladder. These bile have enzyme called Lipase, which helps break down the lipids.


Jejunum
: non accessory organ, small intestine part 2

In the jejunum, the
nutrients are absorbed.
There are projections called villi which absorbs nutrients, vitamins and other significant molecules from the food. These molecules are
transported to blood.
Ileum
: non accessory organ, small intestine part 3

Ileum absorbs the
nutrients that the jejunum possibly could have missed
. Therefore, the presence of Ileum helps the full absorption of nutrients from the foods. Mostly, Ileum absorbs the bile salt, or Vitamin B
Cecum
: non accessory organ Large intestine part 1

The food flows from the
ileum to cecum
. In cecum, the food chemically reacts and goes through
fermentation process
to dissociate whatever is left from the digestion process.
Ascending Colon
: non accessory organ Large intestine part 2


Ascending colon is the very beginning of the long intestine colon. By the time food reaches ascending colon, most of the nutrients are already absorbed. Ascending colon contracts its muscles and
pushes the remaining food smoothely
Transverse Colon
: non accessory organ Large intestine part 3

As its name suggests, Transverse colon acts in between ascending and descending colon. Transverse colon absorbs the
very last minerals and water
. Its strong muscles ceaselessly
pushes the food.
Descending Colon
: Non accessory organ Large intestine part 4

In descending colon, the
dehydrated waste is solidified
and prepares to get secreted through anus. The food becomes solid into the feces
Sigmoid Colon
: non accessory organ Large intestine part 5

The final gate of colon is the sigmoid colon. Here, the food is
transported the rectum
. The colon is S-shaped.
Rectum : Non accessory organ

Rectum finally holds the
feces
that is about to get excreted. Rectum can expand and hold the feces. The food, which by this time is nicely condensed, swiftly moves to the anus.
Anus
: Non accessory organ

The anus pushes out the feces by contracting the muscles. Two sphincters,
Inner anal sphincter and outer anal sphincter
helps to determine the time when the adequate amount of waste is piled.


Anal sphincters

Inner anal sphincter
is not controlled, and it sends signal when the feces approach the outer sphincter. When the signal sends, humans feel the
need to poo.'

Outer anal sphincter
allows us to have the control over the way of excreting the feces. Without outer anal sphincter,
we wouldn't be able to hold our poo

till going to the toilet.
Why is it important that we digest large food molecules?
NUTRIENTS
The major reason why the digestion of large molecules is so significant is because
the nutrients
that are contained in the food are
slowly broken down.
In multiple areas of digestive tract, the
large molecules give off nutrients
. This is really effective in extracting and absorbing all the possible nutrients, minerals and vitamins from the food
How?
The enzymes
play the major role in
breaking down huge food molecules. Enzymes facilitate the dissociation of food and absorption of nutrients by lowering the activation energy. Their assist allows the food to be well, rapidly and conveniently digested and nutrients enter the blood.
Lipid digestion
Carbohydrates Digestion
Protein Digestion
Lipids are digested in the small intestine, especially the duodenum.
Bile
that is secreted from the liver contains
enzyme lipase
that effectively breaks down the lipid.
Carbohydrates are first broken down in the
mouth
by being chewed.
Lysozyme
and
mylase
enzymes in saliva helps the carbohydrates partially break down.

Then, in the
small intestine
, the carbohydrates are broken down chemically. Enzymes from pancreas break down polysaccharides into mono/disaccharides to perform cellular works. Glucose, typical organic molecule often broken down in this process, is transported into bloodstream.
Most of the proteins are broken down by the gastric acid in the
stomach
. These highly acidic
gastric acid
breaks down protein into amino acids. Those protein that are not fully digested, are digested in the
small intestine
. These amino acids are significant nutrients to human body.
Chemical Digestion vs Physical Digestion
Physical Digestion
Chemical Digestion
Physical digestion is digestion without
any chemical reaction.

Physical digestion includes c
hewing
and peristalsis
. These operations do
not break down the food molecules
chemically.
Both
digestions
break down
food so that
nutrients are
easily
absorbed.
Chemical Digestion is digestion that breaks
food down using
chemical reactions
. Such operation includes digestion using bile and
gastric acid. These digestions
break down the
huge food molecules
into pieces so that they
are adequate to pass down to the blood
stream.
Circulatory System
Function:

Circulatory system is system that
circulates
blood and oxygen throughout the body
.
By intricate processes, human body allows humans to retain nutrients all over the body.
Arteries
Capillaries
Veins
Arteries allow the
blood that carries oxygen
to flow away from heart
. Its thick, muscular walls
can endure the high pressure from the blood pumping from heart. Its thin inner tubes are just enough for the blood to pass through.

Smooth muscle
layers are present

Blood Vessels

Branch out into arterioles, which connect to capillaries.
Capillaries collection
-> Venules
-> Veins
Capillaries have
thin walls that
allows the nutrient /oxygen
diffusion.
There is not much contraction, blood flows slowly so that it can obtain all the nutrients. It's more web-like, and it is the thinnest out of all vessels.
Carry blood that
lost its oxygen into
the heart.
These veins
contain valves to prevent
the blood from flowing
backwards. The blood then
goes into the heart, where
it gets re oxygenated.
2. Right Atrium

The deoxygenated blood first enters right atrium from the vena cava.
2.Right ventricle
The
tricuspid valve (Atrio venticular valve)
connects right atrium to right ventricles. It allows the blood to flow from the right atrium to right ventricle. It also prevents backflowing.
4. Pulmonary artery
The pulmonary artery pumps the blue blood into the lungs. (Deoxygenated)
5.Pulmonary veins
After getting oxygenated by the lung, the blood then heads into the heart again through pulmonary veins. The blood, by this time, is oxygenated and red.
7.Mitral Valve
Mitral valve connects the blood from left artium
left ventricle. Mitral valve
prevents the blood from flowing from left ventrical to left atrium
. It makes sure that the blood flows forward.
10.Aorta
The oxygenated blood travels to the aorta and is delievered to the rest of the body.
What is blood made of?
Plasma
Plasma makes up the liquid part of the blood.
Plasma is consist
of water + essential materials dissolved such as lipids, salts, and glucose
. The plasma transports the nutrients around the body

Erythrocytes
Erythrocytes are the
red blood cells
. These
blood cells contain
hemoglobin
that is responsible for
transporting oxygen
. Red blood cells also remove carbon dioxide after granting the oxygen to the tissues all over the body.
Leukocytes
Leukocyes are the white blood cells that
fights infection
. These blood cells contain
lysosomes
and goes through
exocytosis
to fight any seemingly nocuous bacterias. It is also responsible for digesting the used up red blood cells
Platelets
Platelets are the cells that are
responsible for making clots.
When someone is bleeding, the platelets heal the wound so that the blood does not leak and keeps on flowing. The blood vessels, when sense the leak,
sends signal to the platelets
through cellular communication. Then, plateletes bind to solidify and form the clot for the wound.
Erythrocytes structure vs function
Red blood cells have unique type of structure than other cells. They do not have any nucleus and other organelles that normal eukaryotic cells have. This way, they can hold oxygen using the hemoglobin proteins and focus on that task only. Also, the cell is flat enough to allow the larger surface area to help the oxygens diffuse with ease.
Open system vs closed system
Open system:

Blood is pumped through a
heart-like organ
Blood gets
directly in contact with tissue


Closed system:

Blood only is in the
vessel pathways
Vessels branch into
capillaries
Blood diffuses through
capillaries and nutrient is dissolved

Similarity:
Contains heart / heart-like organ pumping the blood
Blood vessels are present

Respiratory System
Function:

The major function of respiratory system is to
exchange oxygen with carbon dioxide.
Oxygen absorption, exhalation and inhalation all are essential parts of our body, for the oxygen is one of the most important molecules for human body
Arveoli
Arveoli are
tiny sacs of air
. These structures are specifically adapted to deftly carry out the process of gas exchange. The adaptations are
Surface area
Alveoli
's
increased surface area
facilitates diffusion. Increasing amount of alveoli leads to
increasing surface area to volume ratio
. This in turn leads to increasing amount of oxygen gas diffused into the alveoli.
Thin walls
Thin walls of alveoli allows the
substances to pass
with an ease. The wall is only one cell thick, and this in turn permits the quick, great amount of diffusion as the substance (mostly oxygen) is easily able to pass through the wall.
Capillaries
Capillaries are present in alveoli. These capillaries allow the alveoli to increase the
efficiency of diffusion
just like how capillaries allow the diffusion of molecules in the circulatory system. Capillaries take the oxygen from gas exchange riginto the blood.
Trachea
Lungs
Bronichioles
Bronchi
CO2 and O2 transportation
Oxygen may be inhaled from our mouth, but that's not it. It is transported by the red blood cells, which contain hemoglobin proteins. When there is large amount of oxygen, hemoglobins are saturated. However, when there's large amount of CO2,
hemoglobin starts to release oxygen molecules
. Most of the CO2 binds with the protein. Majority binds with water to form
carbonic acid
, which is in turn stored in the red blood cells.
Oxygen pathway
As shown in the orange arrows in the diagram, oxygen
first enters through mouth
. Then, it travels through the
trachea
, and it
reaches the lungs
. Here,
oxygen gets diffused into the blood
and is blended with the plasma of the blood.
Then, Once oxygen has entered the blood, it moves
towards the red blood cells
. Red blood cells are ubiquotous in the blood
Then,
once it enters the flat red blood cell
, it gets diffused and attatches to specific protein hemoglobin. From there,
hemoglobin stores oxygen and releases when it's needed
. The blood flows around the body to provide oxygen to the oxygen deficient organs

Inhalation
1. Air is inhaled through the nose, mouth and travels down the trachea.
2. It reaches
lungs through bronchi
3. Once the
oxygen reaches lungs
, it travels to the bronchioles, which extend throughout the lung.
4.
Bronchioles lead to the alveoli,
where the gas exchange occcurs

Exhalation
1.
Diaphragm returns to normal
2. The space remaining
after the exhalation
forces the air out once the gas exchange has occured
3.
Air is pushed out of the lungs
like the squezeed balloon.
4.
Chest cavity smaller
5. Air pressure is higher than the external environment, therefore
air flows from cavity to outside.
Fatty acids, cholesterol and other nonpolar molecules
are absorbed by
diffusion
, while amino acids and sugars area absorved via
active transport.
Water soluable molecules are transported through
osmosis
Disease: Peptic Ulcer
What is it?
Disease that causes sores in the
inner lining
of the stomach or the duodenum.
Why does it happen?
Many different causes can incur Peptic Ulcer. Some of the causes nclude usage of nonsterodial anti-
inflammatory drugs
, too much
gastric acid production
from the liver, and bacteria
Helicobacterpylori
Symptoms
Weight loss
Blood Vomit
Nausea
Sore in the abdomen or above the abdomen
Bloating
Acid Reflux
Heart Burn
Perforation in stomach
Prevalance
Currently, about
10-15%
of the population is inflicted with Peptic Ulcers. There are two types of Peptic Ulcers:
Duodenal Ulcers
which happen in the Duodenum, and
Gastric Ulcers
which happen in the stomach. Duodenum ulcers are usually more prevalent (about 4 x). Peptic Ulcer usually happens to
elderly males.

Treatment
Peptic Ulcer by nonsterodial Anti-inflammatory drugs -
acid suppressing drugs

Peptic Ulcer by excessive acid -
Antacids
, anti-refulx techniques

Peptic Ulcer by Helicobacter pylori -
Triple Therapy
in which a proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics are used to fight bacteria

Extreme cases:
endoscopy
or
surgery
Disease: Jaundice
What is it?
Juandice is a
malfuctioning of liver
. When liver can't get rid of
bilirubin
, which is the left over after the iron is extracted from hemoglobin, it builds up in body and is secreted to bloodstream
Why does it happen?

Excessive breakdown of red blood cells, or any factor that contributes to the
malfunctioning of liver or aggregation of bilirubin
causes Juandice
Symptoms

Yellowish skin color
Yellowish eyes
Arching back
Seizures
Difficulty in breathing
Prevalance
Juandice is mostly prevalent in
new born infants
. Currently, about
20%
of the new born baby has Juandice. For young kids, it goes away within a week. However, when
adults
have Juandice, not only it is
rare
, but it also
signals the other possible diseases
Treatment
When a infant obtains this disease (it is common), then the babies are placed
under the blue light.
Blue light can lower the secretion of the bilirubin and it can help bilirubin to get excreted. If this methodolgy is ineffective, baby
takes medicine
that contains protein to get rid of Juandice. In the worst case, the
blood must be extracted
from baby, and rebalance the bilirubin.
1. Vena cava
The blood enters the heart by
Superior vena cava
or
inferior vena cava
. The one on the top is
Anterior
(superior) vena cava, and the one under is
Posterio
r (inferior) vena cava. Here, the
deoxygenated
blood enters into the heart.
3. Semi-Luminar valve
The blood flows from
Right Ventricle to pulmonary artery
by Semiluminar valve
(Pulmonary valve)
. The valve prevents the blood from backflowing into right ventricle.

6. Left Atrium
The oxygenated blood enters the left ventricle through the pulmonary veins from the lung
8. Left Ventricle
The oxygenated blood passes from the left atrium to left ventricle through
Mitral Valve
(atrio-venticular valve). From here, the blood is pumped to Aorta by passing
Aortic valve
(semilunar valve)
9. Aortic Valve
Tricuspid Valve
Grasshopper
has a open circulatory system. The cycle is somewhat simlar to the closed system, but there is a main difference: the system is open. The circulatory fluid called
hemolymph

directly touches the body cells and organs.
When they're in contact, chemical exchange takes place, then the hemolymph returns through the
pores.
A
worm
has a closed circulatory system. The
blood never leaves the vessels
unlike the open circulatory system.
Vessels are stretched out
so that it can exchange materials easily with the organs that they are in contact with. Earthworm has
interstitial fluid
around organs that is away from the blood.
Different Circulatory Systems
Reptile
Reptie's heart has
divided ventricles
. Just like all other systems, blood flows from lung to left atrium, then travels to aorta to be delivered through the entire body.
Right ventricle holds deoxygenated blood (blue)
while the l
eft ventricle holds oxygenated blood (red)
. Once the blood goes around, the deoxygenated blood moves into right ventricle and tavels to left aorta.
Amphibians
Amphibian heart has
2 atria but only 1 ventrcle
. Both oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood meets in the ventricle, and traveles throughout the body. This special adaptation benefits the
amphibians because single ventricle produces high pressure to circulate the body
through the system. Amphibians live both in water and land, therefore they have to have such adaptation to survive.
Mammals
Mammals have four chambers.
Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium,
then travels to right ventricle, then travels through
pulmonary artery
to go into the
lungs
. There, the blood gains oxygen from the lung, and the enters the left atrium through
pulmonary veins
. Then, it travels to left ventricle, and then
aorta
, where the
blood is transported to rest of the body.
After providing the organs the oxygens, the deoxygenated blood reenters the right atrium through
Vena Cava veins.
Fish
Heart of a fish only has
2 chambers
. Blood travels to the gillsts oxygenated, then travels to systemetic capilaries, where the oxygenated
blood provides oxygen to the organs
. Then the blood enters the atrium, then the ventricles deoxygenated, and then heads back to gills to obtain the oxygens.
Bird
Bird's heart and circulatory system
is adapted for where birds spend most of their time: sky
. Birds have seperated pathways for oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, and just like mammals, have 4 chambers in the heart to connect the pathways. Lung, just like mammals, help the oxygenation of blood. However, the bird is different in
that their heart size is quite large.
Because birds are extreemly active and are most of the time navigating across the sky, they need bigger heart to ensure bird's metabolism can keep up.
Disease: Hyper Tension
What is it?
Hyper tension is basically
high blood pressure.
When a person has blood pressure of 40(systolic) / 90(diastolic) mmHg or above, a person is considered to have high blood pressure.
Why does it occur?
It is majorly caused by
obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, diabetes, genetics smoking and stress.
Symptoms
Prevalance
Treatment
Headache
Nausea
Fatigue
Constant Nosebleed
Confusion
Hypertension is pretty common.
28-30%
of the population has hyper tension, most of which are
18 years old or older
. Therefore, there is almost 1 adult with hyper tension in every 3 adults.
Like how the causes are mostly due to unhealthy lifestyle (except genetics) , change in lifestyle can solve hypertensions.
Having healthy diet, exercising regularly, regulating smoking, alcohol, stress
are some of the ways to fix hyper tension. There are also medicines that could help regulating the blood pressure.
Disease: Sickle Cell Disease
What is it?
Sicle-cell disease is when the
hemoglobin becomes mutated
and the red blood cell, the erthrocyes, are distorted and are enlongated.
What causes it?
The major cause of Sicle Cell Disease is the
mutation
in
amino acid sequence
. When the cell changes in shape, the cells can not deliver the oxygen well, and the organ starts to swell due to lacking oxygen
Symptoms
Chest Pain
Difficulty in breathing
Joint Pain
Infection
Anemia
Swelling
Prevalance
Sickle cell disease takes about
8-9
% of the current African population. (Africans are more susceptible to this disease).That is, almost
1 of every 11
Africans have this sickle cell disease. Currently, the
US has about 90,000
Sickle Cell Disease patients.
Treatment
Because the mutation of hemoglobin/ red blood cells is the most dominant cause, treatment often deals with r
eplacing the red blood cells by blood transfusions
,
inhibition
of aggrgation of
mutated hemoglobin
, and
anti-biotics
. When the case is worse, bone transplant or surgery may be needed.
What if the Lung Burst :O ?
1.
Intercostal muscles
allow the rib cage to expand. This is essential becaues the rib cage has to provide sufficient room for the inflated lung.

2.
Diaphragm
, which is located below the lung, is pulled downward to provide lung the room for inflation

3. When the muscle contracts, the
thoracic cavity increase
s, and the
air pressure inside is low.
Therefore, the gas flows from higher pressure to lower pressure.

With the intercostal muscles and Diaphragm, the lung isn't confined when inflated, and therefore, is not damaged.
Disease: Asthma
What is it?
Asthma is basically a long-term disease in lungs that causes
tightening of airways
, therfore making the patients hard to breathe .
Why does it occur?
It is majorly caused by
genetics, Tabacco smoking, allergies, obesity, stress, Airway Hyperreactivity, and environmental influences.
Symptom
Wheezing
Tightness in chest
Difficulty in breathing
Worsening Coughing
Prevalance
In the United States, about
8.4%
fo the population have asthma, most of which are children rather than adults. In
2010, about 25.7 Million people had asthma
(18.7 million above 18, 7 million under 18).
Treatment
Asthma actually has
no definite treatment
by which a patient can cure Asthma. There are quick
suppressing medications
that can quickly the wheezing, coughing or the symptoms of the Asthma, but no permenent cure. If the
Asthma is not regulated by medicine
,
Bronchial Thermoplasty
takes place. In Bronchial Thermoplasty, doctor provides heat inside the lung to smoothen the muscle and prevent tightening of bronchiole.
Disease: Cystic Fibrosis
What is it?
Cystic Fibrosis is disease where the
muscus in the lungs blocks the airway towards the alveoli,
therefore causing difficulty in breathing
Why does it occur?
It is majorly caused by lung infection from external factors, or from smoking
Troublesome Cough
Repeated Chest Infection
Diarrhoea
Infertility
Difficulty in breathing
Poor Growth
Most of the patients are no older than 2 years. About
1000 patients per year
are know to have Cystric Fibrosis, but
70% of them are infants
. About 45% of the population with Cystric Fibrosis is 18years or older, and 55% below 18.
Treatment
There are variety of treatments, but like Asthma, none of these can permenantly cure the disease. First, there is a
chest physical therapy
, where machines soften the muscus so that the patient can cough it out of the lung. Also,
antibiotics
or anti-inflammatory drugs. Lastly,
surgery
could take place to replace lung in worst case scenario.
Symptoms
Prevalance
Reproductive System
Function:

the major function of reproductive system is to allow the
birth of offspring
. Some does this by
asexual reproductiong
(reproducing by itself) and some do it through the combining of
male and female gametes.
Sexual
Asexual
Uses egg/ Sperm
Two parent organisms
are required (male and female)
Sex cells go through
fusion
Offspring has diverse
gene combination
(not identical to parents)
Cell divide by
meiosis
to provice
gametes
Most mammals
Produce
Offspring

Makes copy of itself
Cell divide through
binary fission, regeneration and budding
No sex cells
required
Offspring has
identical genes
with its parent
Examples
Hydra
: Budding, offspring grows from parental body


Planarians
: Fragmentation, parent break down to
develop offspring


Honeybees
: Pathenogenesis, fertilization with no egg

Menstrual Cycle
Estrous Cycle
Definition: Changes in female body to prepare for pregnancy

Uterus
grows a lining,
waiting for the fertilized egg.
If the egg is not fertillized, the
lining breaks
down along with the egg during menstruation (often called "period".
If the egg is fertilized, the
lining coushions the developing embryo
monthly in human / primates
There are possibility of human female reproducing throughout the
entire cycle
Ovulation in the middle
Definition: Lining in the uterus that develops does not break down when the egg is not fetilized

Unlike Menstrual cycle, the
lining is reabsorbed by the uterus.
No discharge of blood
Unlike Menstrual cycle, mammals can only reproduce during
ovulation
, not the rest of the estrous cycle
Ovulation near the end

Ovarian Cycle
1.
Pituitary Gland,
especially region called
Hyperthalemus
, is stimulated by secretion of
GnRH
(gonadotropin-releasing hormone) and
releases FSH (follicle Stimulating hormone) and LH

2.
Follicle
developes from the hormones

3. Follicle matures, and produces
estradiol.


4.
Postive feedback from te production of estradiol
allows further production of LH and FSH

5.
Follicle Bursts
and
releases oocyte
(ovulation)

6. LH stimulates the remaining burst-follicle to become
Corpus Leteum

7. Corpus Leteum produces
Progesterone and estradiol

8. Not fertilized, Corpus Leteum shrivels and hormone level goes down

9.LH and FHS produced less, due to
negative feedback from lower hormone level
The Menstral Cycle
Menstral Cycle
1.
Estradiol
stimulates the
uterus lining to thicken

2. Estradiol and
Progesterine
stimulate the maintenance endometrium

3. Corpus Letuem, when not fertilize, breaks down.

4.
Hormone level drops
, and causes the
endometrium to constrict

5.
Blood flows and lining breaks down
and is released via vagina
Embryo development
1.Fertilization --> Zygote is produced
2. Zygote undergoes cleavage
*
cleavage
: cell division. 4 cell divisions occur ---> 16 morula cells
3.After cleavage and more cell divisions,
morula
becomes
blastula

4.
Blastocyst
(cells surrounded by blastula) forms
5. Embryo is cushioned and implanted by
endometrium
6.
Gastrulation
occurs (cells move into blastula, forming 2-3 germ layers)
7.
Organogenesis (organs development)
occurs
8. Embryo, when it has its shape after 8 weeks, is called
fetus.
Germ Layers
Endoderm

Endoderm is the innermost layer that develops
Lining of urinary bladder
Pancreas
Epithelial Lining
Digestive and repiratory tracts
Liver
Thyroid
Mesoderm

Mesoderm is the middle layer that develops
connective tissue
Kidneys
Reproductive organs
Lymph vessels
Heart
Muscles and bones
Ectoderm

Ectoderm is the outer layer that develops
Central Nervous system
Peripheral Nervous system
Skin
Mammary glands
nose, ear, eye
Sensory tissue
Disease: Testicular Cancer
What is it?
Testicular cancer is a disease where
one or both testicles' cells become malignant
(cancerous)
Why does it occur?
It is majorly caused by family history of testicular cancer, undescended testicles or congenital abnormalities.
Symptom
Dull pain in the abdomen
Lack of energy
Sweating
Fever
Difficulty in breathing
Coughing
Headache, confusion
Dementia
Prevalance
In the United States, every year, about
7,920
new cases of testicular cancer are diagnosed and about
370 men die
of testicular cancer. Average age of the testicular cancer is about
33
, where
7% is the children
and teens and
7% occurs in the age above 55
.
Treatment
There are three main treatments for testicular cancer. First is
surgery
, where the cancerous testicle is removed through incision. Second is
Radiation
therapy where high-energy rays are used to kill the cancerous cells and tumors in of the cancerous testicle. The last treatment known is the
chemotherapy,
where anti-cancer drugs are used to kill cancer cells .
Disease: Pelvic Inflammation
Disease

What is it?
Pelvic Inflammation disease is when female's pelvic organs such as
Fellopian Tube, uterus, ovary and cervix is infected
Why does it occur?
It is majorly caused by spread of
sexually transmitted disease
through unsafe sex.
Symptom
Fever
Abdominal or pelvic pain
Vaginal discharge
Painful urination
Painful sexual intercourse.
Prevalance
Each year in the United States, more than
1 million women have an episode of PID
. More than
100,000 women become infertile
each year because of PID. Also, many ectopic pregnancies that occur are due to problems from PID.
Treatment
PID can be cured by simple anti-biotic dosing. Most of the time, at least
2 antibiotics
are used that work against a wide range of bacteria. However, when the problem is not solved by this treatment, the patient has to have a
surgery
to fix the pelvic organs, or else the patient can suffer
infertility and ectopic pregancy.

Bibliography
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/19595.htm
http://heartburn.about.com/od/glossaryu/g/uppersphincter.htm
http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/diseases/peptic-ulcer-disease-pud/166
http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-Does-the-Small-Intestine-Do.aspx
http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/digestive-diseases-peptic-ulcer-disease
http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/ss/capillary.htm
http://surgery.about.com/od/beforesurgery/a/HeartBloodFlow.htm
http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/anatomy/blood-function-and-composition/30
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/247837.php
http://www.medicinenet.com/pelvic_inflammatory_disease/article.htm
http://www.medicinenet.com/pelvic_inflammatory_disease/article.htm
http://www.scpcp.org/
https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/vad/
Campbell Biology Textbook 9th edition


Spermatogenesis:
occurs in seminiferous tubules in the testes

Diploid germ cell divides, and the cell goes through mitosis to form
spermatogonia
Spermatogonia
divide mitotically to produce primary spermatocyes
Each primary spermatocyes go through
Meiosis 1 producing secondary spermatocytes
Seconday Spermatocyes
go through Meiosis II to produce haploid spermatids.
Sperm cell gains tail to be motile

Oogenesis: occurs in the ovary
Primary Spermatocyte
Secondary
Spermatocyte
Spermatid
Primary Oocyte
First Polar Body
Secondary Oocyte
Initial Germ cell goes through mitosis -->
Oogonia

Oogonia goes through meiosis -->
Primary Oocytes

Primary oocytes wait until s
exual maturity is reached
. When it is reached and is stimulated by the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), it c
ompletes meiosis.

One cell is small -->
Polar body,
one cell becomes
Secondary Oocyte


If fertilization by sperm occurs, Meiosis II occurs, and second polar body is produced that eventually degenerates. Mature egg produces a zygote
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