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2005 Kashmir Earthquake
Transcript of 2005 Kashmir Earthquake
Cause of Disaster:
Not only located in one area of the world. Do not occur at random.
Lithosphere covers the whole earth’s surface. Divided into mosaic like pieces which are called tectonic plates.
Tectonic plates move in different directions causing disturbances in the earth.
There are four main seismic zones around the world.
Mid ocean ridges: Weak in this area as not enough strain is built up to have a large affect.
Faults: Can have a large affect as the plates scrape against each other creating great friction.
Converging plates: One plate is subducted underneath the other forming trenches. Can range from shallow to deep depending on its location.
Boundaries of continental plates: Shallow earthquakes occur within this area due to intense pressure from the high mountain ranges.
Caused by abrupt shaking within the Earth’s lithosphere.
Kashmir lies directly on top of the Indian and Eurasian continental plates collide.
Converging plates, caused abrupt shaking under the ocean.
Plates too light for one to subduct. Instead they push against each other.
Impact forces land upwards, creating a mountain range.
The intense compression of the land and sudden release, caused the earthquake.
By Natalie Youie
Type of Disaster:
Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, Biosphere
Effects of Disaster:
Abrupt shaking within Earth's Lithosphere.
Occurred October 8th 2005 at 08:52 am.
7.6 on the Richter scale.
Overwhelming effect on people, environment and neighbouring countries, including India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.
Hydrosphere: acidic gases released into the atmosphere causing rain to become more acidic. Rain contaminated the oceans and rivers which killed the animal and plants in the ocean.
Atmosphere: earthquake caused buildings to collapse including industries. Led to chemical gases being released into the atmosphere, damaging the ozone layer by a further 0.6°C rise in temperature.
Biosphere: earthquake caused deaths of approximately 80,000 people. Children were at school, leaving them buried in their classrooms. Buildings including industries, hospitals and homes were destroyed leaving nearly 4 million people homeless and without medical services. Also habitats of wildlife were destroyed, forcing them to leave.
2005 Kashmir Earthquake, Pakistan
Advances in Technology:
Helps detect earthquakes earlier.
Equipment called seismometers detects the movement in the waves and the ocean floor.
If the movement is very large, the seismometer will detect it as an earthquake.
This will then trigger an alarm prior to the event to warn people inland and prevent injury or death to humans.
Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR):
Used to predict earthquakes by measuring movement of tectonic plates.
Helpful to predict and prepare for future earthquakes, the strength of them, and the location of where the earthquake is occurring.
Advances in Technology:
Effects of Disaster:
A&E Television Networks, 2014. 2005 Kashmir Earthquake. [Online] Available at: http://www.history.com/topics/kashmir-earthquake [Accessed 18th August 2014].
BBC, 2014. Tectonic Plates. [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/natural_hazards/tectonic_plates_rev2.shtml
[Accessed 23rd August 2014].
EssaysProfessor, 2014. Kashmir Earthquake in Pakistan. [Online] Available at: http://essaysprofessor.com/samples/Informative/kashmir-earth-quake-in-pakistan.html [Accessed 23rd August 2014].
GNS Science, 2009. Tectonic Plates and Plate Boundaries. [Online] Available at: http://www.gns.cri.nz/Home/Learning/Science-Topics/Earthquakes/Earthquakes-at-a-Plate-Boundary/Tectonic-Plates-and-Plate-Boundaries [Accessed 23rd August 2014].
Mohan, S., 2006. Technology: Predicting Earthquakes. [Online] Available at: http://www.cioinsight.com/c/a/Technology/Technology-Predicting-Earthquakes/ [Accessed 23rd August 2014].
Seismic Warning Systems, 2014. Seismic Warning Systems. [Online] Available at: http://www.seismicwarning.com/ [Accessed 23rd August 2014].
USGS, 2012. Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics. [Online] Available at: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/plate_tectonics/rift_man.php [Accessed 22nd August 2014].
A mountain range caused by converging plates.