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# Binoculars

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## Kailee Morrison

on 8 January 2015

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#### Transcript of Binoculars

Binoculars
The word 'binoculars' is a noun used to describe an optical instrument with a lens for each eye, used for viewing distant objects.
Reference
List
Ray Diagrams
What do binoculars do?
How do binoculars use reflection and refraction?
Ray Diagrams
Main Idea
To see something in the distance, you can use two convex lenses placed one in front of the other

The first lens catches light rays from the distant object and creates a more focused version of the image behind this first lens, which can also be called the objective lens

The second lens picks up the image and then magnifies it, similar to what a magnifying glass does

Light rays passing through convex lenses often cross, resulting in an upside down image, however most binoculars are built with 'porro prisms' to regulate the angle by reflecting the light 180 degrees allowing the viewer to see an upright final image
Refraction is key to the use of binoculars as the distant image must travel from air to glass (lens) and therefore the light bends making it evident refraction is occurring

The prisms inside binoculars refract light off of them and transport it to the viewers eye

Binoculars use reflection between prisms to reflect the light of the image to one another and then to the eyepiece lens (second lens)
Binocular Magnification Calculations

Calculation of magnification:

Magnification= Effective objective diameter ÷ Exit pupil diameter
= Focal length of objective lens ÷ Focal length of eyepiece lens

fun facts
How to measure the diameter of the exit pupil. (July 7, 2008). [Image]. Retrieved from http://my.kwic.com/
How to measure the diameter of the exit pupil. (July 7, 2008). [Image]. Retrieved from http://my.kwic.com/
Binoculars create total internal reflection
Maria, S. (2012). How binoculars work. Research The Topic. Retrieved from https://researchthetopic.wikispaces.com/
Science Perspectives 10. (2010). The triangular prism. Ontario: Nelson Education LTD.

"A pair of low-power telescopes or prismatic spotting scopes mounted together parallel for stereoscopic (three-dimensional), magnified viewing of distant scenes." (Encyclopedia of Science, 2014).

Binoculars were invented in the late 17th century
Binoculars can cost from \$200 to \$750
Some binoculars are too heavy to hold and must be mounted on a tripod.
Binoculars are often referred to with numbers (7x50 or 10x35)
example calculation

If the magnification of one lens in the binoculars is 10x and the height of the object is 5m, determine the height of the image.
GIVEN
M=10x
ho=5m

REQUIRED
hi=?
ANALYSIS
M=hi/ho
SOLUTION
M=hi/ho
10=hi/5
50=hi
PARAPHRASE
∴therefore the height of the image is 50m.
Seyried, J. W. (1995.) Choosing, Using, & Repairing Binoculars. London: Atlantic Books.
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