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Transcript of Reciprocal Teaching
Fosters a two-way dialogue between the students and the teacher.
Instruction becomes a conversation about understanding the text, passage, or story. 4 Main Components Summarizing Questioning Clarifying Predicting (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr "The Fab Four" Reciprocal Teaching was originally designed for the Middle Grades
Since then, it has been modified to include the Primary Grades Will This Work for My Students? Students can tell the teacher or their peers what they think will happen.
Give thoughts on what topics they think the text will cover. To understand parts of the story more clearly.
To explore themes and topics more deeply.
To connect their ideas, and the ideas of their peers.
Using metacognition, the student asks themselves questions and better understand their own thoughts.
Students need to have an understanding of the text in order to ask knowledgeable questions. Why do students question? Students identify parts of the text that are unfamiliar or hard for them to understand.
This step motivates students to re-read to find the answer in the context or to look it up in another source.
Things to clarify include vocabulary, references, and unclear concepts. Students identify the most important information from the story.
Combine information, themes and ideas to form the Main Idea.
Students may do this first for a sentence, then paragraphs, then whole chapters or whole stories. Visual and hands-on tools are popular ways to implement Reciprocal Teaching.
Students may use charts/graphic organizers for whole group, small group or individual instruction.
Students can record their Predictions, Questions, Clarification requests, and one-sentence Summaries on sticky notes.
Younger students can be engaged with role-playing using props or puppets to explain the role of the "Fab Four" So How Do I Use This? Things to think about... Implications When used correctly, students' reading levels were increased 1-2 grade levels in 3-6 months.
Students who are ELL increase their vocabulary and comprehension skills.
Students with disabilities and who struggle with reading are more engaged and have more success when this type of instruction is used.
Younger students will need additional instruction on basic procedures.
It is better to gradually introduce each component of the "Fab Four" to students so that they can understand each step before attempting to perform them independently. Give students a cue card with possible prompts for each component to provide a way for them to start the process.
This strategy can be used with picture-based, text-based or electronic instruction (via computer or using a keyboard).
Give students extended time to work on assigned reading tasks, or allow them to have previewing time (e.g. Taking the assignment home the night before to brainstorm and come to class with ideas the next day). Adaptations & Modifications Stricklin, K. (2011). Hands-on reciprocal teaching: A comparison technique. The Reading Teacher, 64(8). 620-625.
Oczuks, L. (2003). Reciprocal teaching at work: Strategies for improving reading comprehension. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Palincsar, A. S. & Brown, A. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension monitoring activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2), 117-175.
Pilonieta, P. & Medina, A. L. (2009). Reciprocal teaching for the primary grades: "We can do it, too!" Reading Teacher, 63(2), 120-129.
Williams, J.A. (2010). Taking on the role of questioner: Revisiting reciprocal teaching. Reading Teacher, 64(4), 278-281. References