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Transcript of Organic Macromolecules
- Also important are = O, N, P, S, Ca All living things (organic) contain these categories of macromolecules: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Macro = big
Molecule = two or more atoms join together chemically Carbon has 4 electrons in it's outer (Valence) shell Carbon can bond by covalent bonds with as many as 4 other atoms Carbon can form double and triple bonds, however it will always share its 4 valence e- Bond types Covalent Ionic Polar covalent bonds Non-polar covalent bonds Hydrogen In polar covalent bonds electrons are not shared equally among all atoms
A slight charge is associated with each side of the molecule
Toward the side of Oxygen, the electrons like to bunch up (resulting in - negative charge Toward the side of Hydrogen, the electrons are scarce (resulting in + positive charge Equal sharing of electrons.
No charge is associated with the molecule Behavior towards Water Ionic and polar covalent bonds have charge or "delta" charge and are attracted to water.
Because H2O is a polar covalent molecule
Hydrophilic Non-polar covalent bonds do not dissolve in H2O.
Hydrophobic Each atom's sharing abilities form molecules with certain geometric properties tetrahedron Carbon can/will form ring type structures Molecules may be made up of the SAME number and type of atoms; but have a DIFFERENT 3 dimensional arrangement
Example; a sugar, C6H12O6 One atom takes an electron
One atom gives an electron Weak bond between Hydrogen atom acceptors/donors.
Important interaction within certain macromolecules Building big molecules requires linking structures together Condensation Reaction Hydrolysis Reaction Also known as dehydration In biological systems, macromolecules are often formed by removing H from one atom and OH from the other (see the diagram below). The H and the OH combine to form water. Small molecules (monomers) are therefore joined to build macromolecules by the removal of water. The diagram below shows that sucrose (a sugar) can be produced by a condensation reaction of glucose and fructose.
This is a type of reaction in which a macromolecule is broken down into smaller molecules.
It is the reverse of condensation (above).
The MONOMER for each category is it's most simple (smallest) form/structure Sugar
Monosaccharide Glycerol, fatty acid Nucleotide Amino Acid The names of most sugars end in -ose Rings or chains bond together (condensation rxn) to make
polysaccharides Polysaccharides of importance: Starch Glycogen Cellulose Chitin Starch and glycogen are polysaccharides that function to store energy. They are composed of glucose monomers bonded together producing long chains that twist or branch. Cellulose and Chitin are polysaccharides that function to support and protect the organism. The cell walls of plants are composed of cellulose. The cell walls of fungi and the exoskeleton of arthropods are composed of chitin. The difference in structure of the molecule = the difference in function of the molecule Polysaccharides strung together through condensation reactions are arranged slightly different giving the "starch & glycogen" molecule a twisting, compact spiral shape; while the "cellulose & chitin" molecules form straight chains Saturated/Unsaturated fats Animals store extra carbohydrates as glycogen in the liver and muscles. Between meals, the liver breaks down glycogen to glucose in order to keep the concentration of glucoses in the blood stable. After meals, as glucose levels in the blood rise, it is removed from and stored as glycogen. Plants produce starch to store carbohydrates Cotton & wood are composed mostly of cellulose. These are the remains of the cell walls after the cell dies Fiber is an important cellulose based component of the human diet Animals that can digest cellulose often have a symbiotic relationship with a protozoan to help digest the large chains of sugars (cell wall) Saturated fats have no double bonds between carbons
Unsaturated fats have bent fatty acid tails ( = between C)
(example: corn oil) melt at a lower temperature Phospholipids a Phosphate group replaces one fatty acid chain, resulting in a
Head end (phosphate group) and a
Tail end (2 fatty acid chains) Phospholipids spontaneously form a bilayer in a watery environment. They arrange themselves so that the polar heads are oriented toward the water and the fatty acid tails are oriented toward the inside of the bilayer Amino Acids bond together through
a specific covalent bond = Peptide Bonds Polypeptide chains then bunch, twist, and FOLD to form proteins OR These intricate folds provide for a NUMEROUS amount of protein functions Antibodies - proteins in immune system that defend against foreign invaders Contractile proteins - (examples: actin/myocin) involved in muscle contraction/movement Enzymes - catalyze (assist in) biochemical reactions. Most common example: digestive proteins that break down food into macromolecules Hormones - messenger proteins that signal chemical reactions to occur Structural proteins - usually fibrous (stringy) and provide support for tissues. Examples: keratin (hair), collagen (skin, ligaments, tendons) Transport proteins - function to provide pathways for other chemicals to move from one place to another. Example: hemoglobin Denaturation Occurs when the intricate folds, chemical attractions are broken down. Result of denaturation is the change in shape of the protein Protein then ceases to function because its structure has been altered. Carbon = C
Atomic number = 6
Atomic weight = 12.011 = Example Carbon can/will form chain type structures What is an isomer? To link or unlink chains or rings, organic molecules utilize H2O Atoms share outer (valence) electrons Water's Polar Covalent Bonds Geometric shape = Mickey Mouse Solute Solvent Organic Molecules and Reactions with H2O pH Scale The concentrations of hydrogen ions and indirectly hydroxide ions are given by a pH number. pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. The equation is: pH = - log [H+] H2O <--> H+ + OH- Solution A solution is a homogeneous mixture of a solute and a solvent. Solutions can be formed in any state of matter; that is they may be solid, liquid, or gas. A solution is prepared by dissolving a solute into the solvent. Solute is either the smaller component of a mixture or, when liquid solutions are considered, the gaseous or solid substance added to the solution. Solubility Solvent is the material (matter; either gaseous or liquid or solid) in which the solute is dissolved/mixed completly. The number of grams of solute that can just be dissolved in 100 ml of solvent at 20°C is defined as the solubility (36g for NaCl). In other words (50% solute and 50% solvent). At the maximum solubility the solution is saturated and in dynamic equilibrium with the unsoluble part of solute. Such a solution is called saturated. Solution with less concentration is call unsaturated. Enzyme Substrate Active Site Protein Function Exothemic Reactions Endothermic Reactions Chemical reactions that release Energy Chemical reactions that absorb Energy A match In DNA, the nucleotides combine together following specific rules 20 different Amino Acids:
Humans can manufacture 10 of these from biochemical rxn.s in our body.
The other 10 are called "Essential" because we must consume (eat) them to have access to the chemical. An Enzyme is a specifically folded protein whose function is to affect (catalyze - increase) the speed of a biochemical reaction
(reactant A + reactant B --> products) The enzyme shape/function is not changed by affecting the speed of the reaction, and thus can be used continuously to affect the reaction over again. The specific shape of the folded protein creates an area that is known as the active site.
This is the area of amino acids that fit together with (acts on) the substrate
Each enzymes' shape is different, thus active sites/enzymes can only work for specific reactions/substrates The reactant in the biochemical reaction on which the enzyme acts. http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol115/Wyatt/Biochem/Protein/Active%20site.htm