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Lake Superior

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Evan Braun

on 19 March 2014

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Transcript of Lake Superior

Lake Superior

An Aquatic, Freshwater

Evan Braun

Section 1
Part 1: Biotic Description of Biome
Focus on Limnetic and Benthic Zone
Largest Lake by Surface Area
3rd Largest by Volume

Keystone Species and Apex Predator: Lake Trout
Population has increased and is approaching carrying capacity
Predator of Lake Herring, Bloater, Yellow Perch, and other tertiary animals
Section 2
Types of Natural Disasters
Impacts on Biotic Factors
"White Hurricane" 1913
Lowered Average Surface Temperature of Water
Some species died
Landscape around littoral zone was completely destroyed
Areas around lose diversity with lack of water
Less volume=less space=more competition
Human Impacts
Introduction of Invasive Species
Chemicals/Pollutants being dumped into the lake
Excessive Nutrients (Phosphorous)
Impacts on Abiotic Factors
Increased Temperature
Topography of region is altered from storms
More precipitation with snowfall and rain
Storms and blizzards can be caused of lake-effect (result of atmosphere)
Limit Pollutants, Excessive Nutrients, and Overfishing
Partnerships between natural resource agencies and commercial fishers
1971- First Sport Fish Advisory
Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Restoration Act- 1991
Great Lakes Coastal Program
Endangered Species Program
National Fish Passage Program
Great Lakes Human Health Effects Research Program

If we do not follow these guidelines and abide by the law, species of fish could go extinct
Following, a huge imbalance in the ecosystem and food chain
Carrying capicity would change and take years to adjust
Effective biomass of fish populations could reduce
Apex- Nothing is above it in the Food Chain
Why Keystone?

When over fished and with introduction of invasive species, population heavily dropped.
With this drop, its prey rose in number and dropped until ecosystem formed new carrying capacity
Loss of Biodiversity as a result
Abiotic Factors
Gemstone Rich
Mineral Rich
Soil: Poor
Low Turbidity: Low Amounts of Nutrients, Sediments, and Organic Material
Elevation: 600 Feet
: 30 inches every year
Water Sources
: Fed by over 200 rivers
Largest: Nipigon, St. Louis, and Pigeon Rivers
: 10% of world's fresh surface water that is not frozen
: Low compared to the other Great Lakes; Mercury, Dioxin, and PCBs are present in lake and can harm wildlife
Defining Factor Hydrosphere:
Elevation: 600 Feet above sea level
Weather Patterns:
Shoreline temperatures warmer in winter; cooler in summer
Sea smoke- Seriously cold air moves over warmer water
Defining Factor:Symbiotic Relationship/Invasive Species:
(Keystone, Carrying Capacity)
(Food web)
Ectoparasite-Lives outside host
Arrived in Upper Great Lakes once Welland Canal made them able to swim around Niagara Falls
Has moved to Lake Superior
Discovered 1936 in Lake Michigan
First arrival, killed large numbers of predatory sport fish
1 Sea Lamprey- 40 Pounds of Fish in Lifetime
Huge change in population
Control Methods-
U.S. and Canada spend about $16 million annually
Lampricides worked, but did kill some young fish (1950s)
1986- New Lamprey Barrier which captured lampreys
Under control, but still a threat
Forced to restock native species, whitefish, to help maintain a good level
Limiting Factors
Fish die due to an increase in water temperature
Warmer seasonal temperatures increase water temperature=reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen=some species unable to survive

Level of Nutrients:
Excess amount
Noxious algae
Low dissolved oxygen
Loss of open water
Loss of habitat for fish and fish food
Reduced food chain efficiency (algae becomes inedible)
38 Native-Fish
17 Non-Native
Elevation: 600 ft
Longitude: 47.7°N
Land Masses:
Proximity to Ocean:
Mild Winters
Warm Springs
Hot Dry Summers
Warmest we have seen Lake Superior in a century
Spring and Autum=
Seasons of transition
Defining Characteristic of Climate:Temperature
Temperature controls the kinds of organisms that can live in rivers and lakes
All organisms have a preferred temperature range
Most aquatic organisms are cold-blooded
The higher the water temperature, the greater the biological activity
Due to latitude, elevation, and proximity to ocean, Lake Superior has a relatively warm climate, which allows more biodiversity.
Natural Hazards
Disruption to Specific Location Within Biome
River floods
Heat Wave
Climate Change
At twice the carbon dioxide level (700ppm), climate of basin will be warmer by 2-4 degrees C.
Increased evaporation from lake surfaces
Augment the percentage of precipitation from atmosphere
Amount of water contributed by each lake basin= will decrease 23 to 50 percent
Declines in lake levels
cause problems for commercial users
reduces biologic diversity
Displacement of cold-water species (unsuitable), Dead Zones (slows down air exchange), Effect on Reproduction (wash away eggs)
Lake Sturgeon is now an endangered species in Lake Superior and in other Great Lakes
around 1800, commercial fisherman though they were useless (destroyed fishing gear) which led to its slaughter
Mid-1800s, recognized as important market; 1879-1900- Averaged 4 million pounds of catch
1900-1970s- continued to decline; by late 1900s- 80% removed
Factors- Commercial Overexploitation, Damming of Tributaries, Destruction of spawning areas, Agriculture, Dredging
Led to habitat loss and degradation
Now recognized as a Endangered and protected in Canadian waters
With introduction of invasive species, benthic zone is deemed to become more plentiful (Increase of Lake Sturgeon)
March-May 2009/2010- Temperature Change
Biotic Factors
Full transcript