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Plate Boundaries and Volcanoes

Plate boundaries, movement, features, world examples
by

Chad Sindaco

on 13 December 2017

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Transcript of Plate Boundaries and Volcanoes

Plate Boundaries
DIVERGENT
TRANSFORM
CONVERGENT
continent - ocean
continent - continent
ocean - ocean
CONVERGENT
CONVERGENT
Plates pull apart
New crust is created
Form
mid-ocean ridges
and
rift valleys
plates slide past one another
earthquakes occur
no new features are formed
Plates collide
Subduction occurs
Crust is destroyed
Trenches form
Volcanic arcs form
Continents collide
Both Continents are forced upward
Nonvolcanic mountains form
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/632130/3266/Volcanic-activity-and-the-Earths-tectonic-plates-Stratovolcanoes-tend-to
Volcanoes
Subduction
Zone
Rift Zone
Hot Spot
An opening or area of Earth's surface through
which magma and gases
are released
Cool Link ... click below
Shield Cones
Composite Cones
Cinder Cones
http://www.wwnorton.com/college/geo/egeo2/content/animations/2_6.htm
animation: click below
Layers
Non explosive
Thin lava (mafic)
Gentle slope
Can be tall
Form over hot spots
Stratovolcanoes
Form at subduction zones
Most common cone
Alternating layers
Pyroclastic solids
Lava Flows
Thicker magma (felsic)
Broad base, Steep sides
Can be VERY explosive
(after long periods of nonexplosive eruptions)
Small, steep
Piles of pyroclastic solids
Erupt for short periods
Thick magma (felsic)
Usually form along subduction zones
Place where two tectonic plates touch

All tectonic plates share boundaries with other tectonic plates

Activity at plate boundaries often includes: mountain building, subduction, earthquakes, and volcanoes
*Volcano - an opening in Earth's crust through which magma erupts.
Earth's Interior
solid
most dense
VERY hot
Outer Core:
liquid
hot
Mesosphere:
capable of flow
Asthenosphere:
plastic
flows slowly
Lithosphere:
rigid
crust & upper mantle
tectonic plates
Continental
Rich in silica
Felsic
(light in color - granite)
Less dense, Thicker
Oceanic
Low in silica, rich in iron
Mafic
(dark in color - basalt)
Thinner, More Dense
Plates
Plate: a section of the lithosphere that moves around above the asthenosphere. Can be made of continental and or oceanic crust.
Movement
World Examples
MidAtlantic Ridge
Red Sea
East African Rift Zone
World Examples
San Andreas Fault
Along mid ocean ridges
EX: San Andreas Fault
PLATE TECTONICS
Theory that explains how large pieces of the Earth's outermost layer, called plates, move and change shape
Volcanic Arc
Chain of volcanic mountains that forms on the edge of continents as a result of subduction
EX:
Cascade Mts.
Trench
Depression on Earth's surface that forms as one plate is subducted back into the asthenosphere
World Examples:
Cascade Mts.
Andes Mts.
Peru-Chile Trench
Plates collide
Subduction occurs
Crust is destroyed
Trenches form
Island arcs form
Island Arc
Chain of volcanic ISLANDS that forms as a result of subduction along an ocean-ocean boundary
EX:
Japan
World Examples
Japan
Indonesia
Marianas Trench
World Example
Himalayan Mts.
(Mt. Everest)
Volcanic Arc
Trench
Lithosphere
Asthenosphere
Rift Valley
MidOcean Ridge
Media
Volcanoes
DIVERGENT
Plates pull apart
New crust is created
Form
rift valleys ...
Lead to formation
of lakes, seas and oceans
World Examples
East African Rift Zone
Red Sea
Iceland
ocean - ocean
continent - continent
East African Rift Zone
Iceland
North American Plate
Eurasian Plate
Eurasian Plate
N. American Plate
N. American Plate
N. American Plate
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