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classification of living things

a description of living things using cladistic and linnean principles
by

Tim Bruinius

on 6 February 2013

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Transcript of classification of living things

Living things
bacteria
this refers to a cell that has:
1. no nucleus
2. no organelles
3. cell walls that have peptidoglycan
(all cells that are in this catagory are single celled)
Archaea
this is a cell that has:
1. no nucleus
2. no organelles
3. cell walls that DO NOT have
peptidoglycan in them
(probably the original life forms--
very simple)
Eukarya
these have cells that have:
1. a nucleus with DNA inside
2. organelles
3. cell walls (if they have them) do not have peptidoglycan
(some are multicellular and some are single celled)
Plants
have
1. Cell walls made of cellulose
2. Chloroplasts (they photosynthesize)
3. most are multicellular
Fungi
have
1. Cell walls made of chitin
are heterotrophs (get energy from other things)
Protista
have:
1. cell walls made of cellulose
in some
2. some have chloroplasts
most unicellular
some colonial
some multicellular
auto or heterotrophs
*a bit of a catch all
Animalia
Have:
1. no cell walls or chloroplasts
2. multicellular
3. are herterotrophs
how are animals organized?
glad you asked!
Animals
NO tissues?
no symmetry?
no germ layers?
(endoderm: innermost
gives rise to the digestive
and respiratory system
mesoderm: muscles, circ,
reproductive, and
excretory
ectoderm:outermost sense
organs, nerves and skin
sponges
Tissues?
2 Germ layers?
(endoderm and ectoderm)
and a new innovation called radial symmetry
Organs?
3 germ layers?
Bilateral Symmetry?
Cephalization?
Are you a protostome
or a deuterostome?
help:
Protostome?
Protostome?
Flatworm
Pseudocoelom?
Don't know?
Look:
Acoelomate?
Following this line:
Segmentation?
Annelids
Coelom?
Gills?
Eyes?
Mollusk
Gastropods
Bivalves
Cephlopods
Going the other way on the line that
split at flatworms:
pseudocoelem?
roundworms
Segmentation?
Arthropods
crustaceans
insects
centipedes
arachnids
yikes!
millipede
everything up til now has been an invertebrate (no backbone or nerve cord--in fact their nerve cords are ventral)
Now we move on into the chordates--things with spinal cords.
Everything up til now has been a protostome (remember what those are?)
what about deuterostomes?
Echinoderms
wait! these aren't cephalized and have radial symmetry!
yep. kind of weird
Tunicates
Vertebrates
now that you have a nerve cord down your back (dorsal) side, wouldn't it be great to put some bone around it?
all the catagories so far have been phylums and subphylums. Now we are going to look at several classes. All these classes are in the phylum chordata and subphylum vertebrata.
We'll start with three domains
based on cell types
Here are the four kingdoms that are consided eukaryotes:
The catagories under the kingdom animalia are called phylums. I have ordered them based on an idea called a cladogram. Each step in the process adds a feature (or deletes a few). Pay attention to what is being added to understand what features each new phylum has.
before we look at vertebrates, there's one more animal. a hagfish. it has lots of weird features one of which is that it doesn't appear to have bones around it's spine (or cartiledge). it also lacks jaws.
lampreys
next we can add jaws and paired appendages and get what are called cartilaginous fish.
sharks and rays (cartilaginous fish)
the next step is true bone (made from calcium)
Bony ray finned fish
then, amoung the bony fishes you start seeing lobed fins that can be useful for walking.
lobed finned fish
coelocanth
then lungs begin to develop
gills are still present but primitive lungs are beginning to be used.
lungfish
Carolus Linnaeus
1707-1778

interestingly, the creatures that are considered transitional often don't do as well. often, there are only a few living examples. Lungfish and lobed fin fish are not common and only have handful of species.
Next, a big innovation for living on land:
four legs. there is some initial fossils that have more or less digits (eight on each limb was briefly popular before the nearly ubiquitous five became the norm. amphibians are a notable exception with four in the front and five in the back
amphibians
some innovations for amphibians:
external fertilization
lungs (with help from gills and skin breathing)
and a three chambered double loop circulation system
caecilian
then, with the development of the amniotic egg, you get reptiles. the big thing this did was sever ties with the water. no more needing water to lay eggs in. also lungs got better and skin got drier and scaly.
Reptiles
birds add several innovations:
a four chambered heart
very efficient lungs
and while reptiles vary in this feature: endothermy
which brings us by a different path (the mammal like reptiles) to mammals which have innovations like:
vivipory (live birth)
hair
mammary glands
so some examples of how a couple animals are classified. lets pick camels, bears and a special guest.
all animals are classified by the following system:
Domain
kingdom
phylum
class
order
family
genus
species
so camels are:
chordates
mammals
order: artiodactyla (even toed ungulates)
have an even number of toes and an advanced digestive system which allows it to eat minimally nutritious food
Family: camelidae
sort of camelly animals
Genus: Camelus
Species: camelus bactrianus
how about bears: their latin name is ursus. lets do a polar bear since they're going extinct anyway.
order: carnivora
mainly characterized by pointy molars and large canines
binocular vision
almost entirely meat based diets
pinnipedia
canidae
ursidae
felidae
add retractible claws

mephitidae
family: ursidae
genus: ursus
species: maritimus
finally, our special guest:
you.
well, lets do mr weidenaar instead
order: primates
big brains (most of us)
good stereoscopic vision
at the expense of smell
most live in trees
opposable thumbs
prehensile tails
many have three color vision
long gestations and childhoods
Family: great apes
Genus: homo
species: sapiens
this little dinosaur (sinosauropteryx)
has feathers which are not only visible in the
fossil, but also their color which was analyzed with an
electron microscope.
amphioxus
this little guy is has a dorsal nerve cord with no vertebrae. another interesting thing is that they recently discovered that as animals like this deteriorate, the cool new features deteriorate first and it makes it hard to find new innovations in the fossil record.
l
porifera
Cnidaria
platyhelminate
larva
Jellyfish
anemone
coral
Clades are groups of organisms that share a common ancestor
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