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Political Systems: A global History Perspective
Transcript of Political Systems: A global History Perspective
Communism was conceived more as an economic system than a Political one.
Rebel leaders used the promise of communism, in which all people would own all property, as a means to gather support for rebellions.
Nations such as Communist Russia (the Soviet Union or USSR) and China (the People’s Republic of China or PRC) created Totalitarian States with a Single Party in control.
These countries use Command Economies and Secret Police to attempt to build strong Nations and control their citizens
World Map of Democracies
The act of a Stronger nation taking economic, political, and/or cultural control of, or dominance over another weaker nation or region
The stronger nation is generally industrialized, and uses the weaker nation as a source of cheap raw materials and as a market for manufactured goods.
European Nations (England, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain) and Japan are known as some of the most aggressive Imperialist nations
Social Contract- people agree to enter or create a political society and follow its rules and duties in order to receive protection
Humans have no natural rights (State of nature, survival of fittest), only those that are given to them by forming into political societies.
Government (law) protects people from each others cruelty
“"Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of Warre, where every man is Enemy to every man; the same is consequent to the time, wherein men live without other security, than what their own strength, and their own invention shall furnish them withall. In such condition, there is no place for Industry; because the fruit thereof is uncertain; and consequently no Culture of the Earth; no Navigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by Sea; no commodious Building; no Instruments of moving, and removing such things as require much force; no Knowledge of the face of the Earth; no account of Time; no Arts; no Letters; no Society; and which is worst of all, continuall feare, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short.“ -1651
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
What does this painting tell us today?
The economy of feudalism was Manorialism. Each fief was often self-sufficient or produced all its own goods that it needed.
Developed after the Fall of Rome as there was NO Central Government or Authority, It was a means of Protections
Kings gave land, called a fief to barons, dukes, and other lords, called vassals for a pledge of military support
These Lords gave smaller tracts of land to lesser lords and knights in return for military service.
Knights followed a code of honor that dictated their actions and responsibilities called chivalry
Conflict frequently arose between European Monarchs, and the Pope over who had supreme power (SECULAR V. Spiritual)
European Feudalism (9th- 15th century)
Political, economic, and social system that dominate Europe and Japan during the medieval ages.
Frequently a King or Monarch at the top of the pyramid (Shogun in Japan)
Very hierarchical, very little social mobility
Titles were often hereditary or passed down from birth
Government has TOTAL control over the lives of its citizens
Also known as Dictatorship, Fascist, Authoritarian, Despotic, Single-Party
One Person or Party in control
Censorship, Government control of News
Use of Violence and Terror (Secret Police)
Worship of the leader and/or the military
Nazi Germany, Stalin’s USSR, North Korea, China PRC
A Constitutional Monarchy is a form of representative democracy whereby a figurehead Monarch remains often with only symbolic powers
The actual government is usually a Republican form with Legislatures and an Executive Prime Minister
Japan after WWII, the United Kingdom
Citizen-A member of a state or nation who has allegiance to their state and/or nation.
Is defined differently depending on the country and time period
Ex. In ancient Athens, only Males who had completed military training were “citizens” and could vote. This excluded women, slaves, freed slaves, children, and resident aliens. Only about 20% were true citizen
Citizenship generally comes with defined or assumed rights and responsibilities
Some sort of voice in government
A Responsibility to defend nation in times of need
May have to pay taxes
May have rights such as freedom from search & seizure, arrest without trial etc.
ALTHOUGH NOT ALWAYS!!!
The means whereby a society or culture meets the governing needs of its people.
Political Systems can take many different forms from Rule of One, Rule of Many, Rule by Religion, etc. etc.
Political Systems tend to spread power, involving more people and widening the criteria for “citizens” as a culture advances and people demand more “rights” and say in their government
What is a Political System?
Governments, Social Systems, and Theories
Dictator, Despot, Tyrant, (King? Emperor?), Authoritarian
Totalitarianism, Dictatorship, Despotism, Authoritarian
Aristocracy, Oligarchy, Junta –Rule by small groups
Republic, Democracy, Constitutional Republic, Popular Sovereignty, Rule of the People
Constitutional Monarchy, Parliamentary System, Western Democracy (Japan, England, various Euro Nations)
Titles Down the Ages
Calls for political reform and
Liberalization occurred in many
major cities in China starting in
Beijing April 1989
On June 4th Martial Law was used to clear the protesters with guns, troops, and tanks
China remains a Totalitarian Communist state with a Single-Party, the Communist Party, in control
Tiananmen Square/June 4th Incident
Mao uses the command
economy of the PRC to
have farmers try to make steel in smelters, Communes had quotas
of steel that had to be
Because of this millions die because the smelters used iron tools for farming, and took workers away from farms
Great Leap Forward
Mao Zedong fought a long civil
war to establish China as a
Communist State in 1949
Through the disastrous Great Leap Forward and the even more disastrous Great Cultural Revolution China suffered heavily, with many dissenters and even loyal Chinese dying and banished to prisons
People’s Republic of China
Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik led a communist takeover in Russia and created a one-party state controlled by the Communist Party.
Any dissenters were killed or sent to prison camps to die of starvation or exposure
Joseph Stalin was Lenin’s successor and was responsible for millions of death of Russians, Ukrainians, and Polish dissenters
Soviet Russia fell in 1991 after its satellite states gain independence (DID NOT MEET THE NEEDS OF THE PEOPLE)
Soviet Russia: Communism
Pride, often excessive, in one’s country or culture
An additional cause of European and American Imperialism
Can lead to Negative actions such as the Nazi’s, Imperialism, and Soviet Aggression
Nationalism can be positive
Nationalism in Latin America leading to them overthrowing Spanish Rule,
Nationalism in Africa, India, and Asia leading to Independence Movements from colonialism
Economic Motives The Industrial Revolution created an insatiable demand for raw materials and new markets.
Nationalism European nations wanted to demonstrate their power and prestige to the world.
Balance of Power European nations were forced to acquire new colonies to achieve a balance with their neighbors and competitors.
White Man's Burden The Europeans’ sense of superiority made them feel obligated to bring their version of civilization to areas they considered uncivilized.
Reasons for Imperialism
Wrote The Social Contract
"Man was born free, and he is everywhere in chains. Those who think themselves the masters of others are indeed greater slaves than they."
Sovereignty (the power to make laws) should be in the hands of the people.
Rule by the “General will” would be best and serve the interest of the greatest number of people
Social Contract– People give up freedoms in exchange for government protection
Jean Jacques Rosseau (1712-1778)
Advocated (argued for) a Separation of Powers into 3 branches of Government, Executive, Legislative, Judicial
This would prevent the abuse of any one power over the other two
By separating powers a government can ensure that rights are protected
Advocated for Civil Liberties
Freedom of Religion
Separation of Church and State
Author of Two Treatises of Government (1689)
Government only through “consent of the governed”
Humans have NATURAL RIGHTS of Life, Liberty, and Property
A government should Protect a human’s Natural Rights
John Locke (1632-1704)
Also known as The Age of Reason
European Philosophers during the Enlightenment radically alter the West’s thoughts on government, Individual Rights, and the power of the People.
Used Reason and Logic to examine the world and politics
Enlightenment Ideas would have a lasting effect and be incorporated in many modern nations creation of government
Enlightenment thinkers will impact and influence The Glorious Revolution, The French Revolution, The Latin American Revolutions, and the American Revolutions
Enlightenment (1650/1700-18th century)
James II, Charles I successor also has conflict with Parliament and the Puritans and Protestants
In 1688 William of Orange and his wife Mary are invited to England to become the new monarchs if the sign the English Bill of Rights(1688)
This is known as the Glorious Revolution
The English Bill of Rights sets the English Monarchy as a limited monarchy and acknowledges Parliament as the main governing body of England.
Limited Monarchy in England
Arguments between English Kings and Parliament escalated until Charles I tried to arrest leaders of Parliament.
In 1642 the English Civil War begins between Parliament and Royalists who support the monarchy.
Parliament wins, executes Charles I, and abolishes the monarchy
Absolutism Ends in England
In Europe, the Divine Right of Kings was the idea that the Monarch ruled by the Will of God. Kings and Queens were “given” their power by God, and so should be obeyed absolutely.
In China the Divine Right was called The Mandate of Heaven. This was used to explain the Dynastic Cycle. A dynasty, or royal family held power as long as it provided good government.
Natural disasters, floods, earthquakes, drought, famine, and war were signs that the gods had removed the Mandate of Heaven, thereby making way for a new Dynasty.
Divine Right of Kings/Mandate of Heaven
The Emperor was at the top of Japanese Feudalism, although he held little actual power, he was an important figurehead
The Shogun was the military ruler who held real power in Japan and much like in Europe he gave land to his followers called Daimyo in exchange for military support and loyalty
Daimyo gave land to Samurai the Japanese equivalent to knights. Just as Knights had chivalry, samurai had a code of honor that dictated their actions called Bushido.
Feudalism in Japan: 12th-19th Centuries
Citizens elect officials to “represent” them and vote, propose legislation, or pass legislation based on their input
Rome was one of the first Republics
The USA, France, Germany,
South Korea all have forms of
Today frequently a Representative
“rule of the demos or people, rule of the governed”
Those who are ruled have a direct say in their government and make decisions
Cleithenese created the first democracy in Athens Greece 507 BCE
Pericles of Athens greatly expanded democracy in Athens
“Rule of God’- God is considered the Head of State
Law is often partially or wholly based upon religion, to violate a law is also to sin and to sin is also a violation of law
Vatican City is a theocracy ruled by The Pope
Iran is a theocracy headed by a Supreme Leader
Aristokratia “Rule of the Best”
Aristocracy is a form of government in which a small class of elite citizens rule
The aristocracy is often hereditary, and wealthy, they often had military responsibilities and leadership roles
An aristocracy based solely on wealth or title is called a Plutocracy
Rule by a “monarch” or single head of state (king, queen emperor, etc.)
Monarchies were generally the first form of government for River Valley Civilizations
Monarchies generally have low social mobility, the King or Queen reigns supreme
In early civilizations such as Egypt; the monarchs, called Pharaohs, claimed they were living gods, an early precursor to Divine Right to Rule.
Monarchy: “One Ruler”
“It’s good to be King!”
After World War II, Colonized countries began to demand independence. Many used Civil Disobedience, others used armed resistance or even forms of terrorism
Leaders such as Muhammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan (top) and Mohandas Gandhi of India (bottom) were leaders of their countries’ Independence Movements
The End of Imperialism?
Catherine (left) freed the serfs from being tied to the land.
Peter (right) traveled Europe to learn modern manufacturing , shipbuilding, and dress
Peter the Great and Catherine the Great were two Absolute Monarchs in Russia who used their power to modernize Russia and make it a more powerful European nation.
Frederick the Great of Prussia (1712-1786) won military victories, expanded his Nation, modernized the Military, built canals, made new land arable, tolerated all religions, was a patron of the arts, increased the prestige of the Berlin Academy, and was beloved by his subjects.
The “Enlightened Despot” was a monarch who ruled with the intent of improving the lives of their subjects in order to strengthen or reinforce their authority.
Implicit in this philosophy was that the sovereign knew the interests of his subjects better than they themselves
his/her responsibility to them thus precluded their political participation.
Louis XIV, the “Sun King” was an absolute ruler in France who built the palace at Versailles and required powerful nobles to live near him to keep an eye on them.
Chinese Emperors such as Shang-Di were absolute rulers, they could force thousands of farmers to work to death on huge projects such as walls and canals.
Philip II of Spain
Absolutism is the belief that the Monarch or king has total or ABSOLUTE control over the lives of their subjects.
Many Absolute rulers were also believed in Divine Right of Kings or Mandate of Heaven and use this to justify their Absolute Power
Charles V and Philip II of Spain were absolute rulers. They led the Counter-Reformation and persecuted non-Catholics in their territory
Oligos (a few) archo (to rule)
Rule by a small and wealthy class, generally the merchant class
Oligos (a few) archo (to rule)
Rule by a small and wealthy class, generally the merchant class
When Mao felt his power threatened, he called for a Great Cultural Revolution
Mao regained power, but businesses were stalled, hundreds of thousands displaced, and many sent to re-education camps
Priceless works of art, history, and culture were destroyed
Inspired by Athens, Rome, and Enlightenment ideas the American Colonies revolt and set up early-modern worlds first Democracy (1776)
This leads to the French Revolution (1789)
Latin American Revolutions of the 1790’s and 1800’s
Democracy Strikes Back!