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The Elements of Light - Part II: Aperture

Aperture is the size of the opening in the lens that controls the amount of light to hit the sensor.
by

Mr. Brash

on 19 November 2013

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Transcript of The Elements of Light - Part II: Aperture

So far we've discovered ISO and Shutter Speed. There is a third element of light that controls exposure...
Fundamentals of Light - Part II
The size of the opening through the lens.
Aperture
f-numbers (f-stops) control the focal ratio (flow).
Depth of Field is the idea that certain subjects in your photo can be blurred or sharpened using the aperture.
(more light)
(medium light)
(less light)
Aperture
Basics
For portraits use a medium to low f-number.
For landscapes use a large f-number.
For macros/close-ups/specialty shots use the smallest possible f-number.
The higher the f-number, the DARKER the photo (needs longer shutter speed)
Examples...
f 5.6
f 8
f 13
Time to practice...
As always, we will now practice this concept.
Mr. Brash will explain.
Tips & Tricks
Zoom Out
Wide-angle zoom gives the lens the ability to use its smallest aperture.
Zoom In
When you step back and zoom in, you create a shallower depth of field with the lens, even though the aperture needs to close a little.
Learn what f-numbers are available for the lens you are currently using.
Practice in Aperture Priority mode for several days.
Basically, "On a sunny day set the aperture to f/16 and the shutter speed to 1/(the ISO) for a subject in direct sunlight."
Examples:
On a sunny day with ISO 100 set the aperture to f/16 and the shutter speed to 1/100 or the closest to 1/100 available.
On a sunny day with ISO 200 set the aperture to f/16, and the shutter speed to 1/200 or the closest...
On a sunny day with ISO 400 set the aperture to f/16, and the shutter speed to 1/400 or the closest...
The Sunny 16 "Rule"
Memorize this for great outdoor exposure settings (under sunlight or equivalent lighting).
Examples & Explanations
Aperture Controls the Flow of Light
diaphragm
To get the same amount of water (or light), it takes more or less time.
Look at the focus depth (the ducks) in comparison to the f-stop numbers.
Both shores are in focus with a larger f-stop.
Full transcript