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Indian Reservation and Assimilation Attempts
Transcript of Indian Reservation and Assimilation Attempts
Earlier pioneers had gone to Oregon and California
Many Indians on Great Plains
Sioux, Kiowa, Nez Perce, Apache
Used Spanish horses and hunted buffalo Pioneers Head for the Prairie Homestead Act in 1862
Granted government land to farmers if they would farm it for five years
Many settlers moved West
Clashed with Indians
Transcontinental railroad improved access to West
Discovery of gold also an incentive Native Americans forced to move to reservations by US government
Treaties at Fort Laramie and Fort Atkinson
Many Indians refused to move to reservations
They felt the treaties weren't binding on them
US government didn't realize that chiefs did not represent all the Indians
Indians were promised that reservations would remain theirs, but US went back on a lot of these treaties Some Americans wanted to help Indians through assimilation
Carlisle Indian School worked to erase Indian culture in children
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
Indians could become citizens in 25 years if they assimilated
Few Americans felt any concern for the Indians
Exception: Helen Hunt Jackson, who published "A century of Dishonor" which criticized the government's treatment of Indians Image URLs Sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wounded_Knee_aftermath3.jpg http://northdakotacowboy.com/?id=67&form_data_id=25 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Armstrong_Custer http://www.nps.gov/home/historyculture/upload/mw,pdf,homestead%20act,txt.pdf http://www.ijreview.com/2012/09/17695-lakota-sioux-nation-secedes-from-the-us/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Fort_Laramie_(1868) 1864~1890 Native Americans forced to move to reservations by US government
Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1868:
"...this reservation for the use of said Indians, and henceforth they will and do hereby relinquish all claims or right in and to any portion of the United States or Territories, except such as is embraced within the limits aforesaid, and except as hereinafter provided."
Treaty relegated the Sioux Indians to live only on their reservations in the Black Hills
Also required Sioux children to become "civilized" by attending English school Army was sent West to force Indians onto reservations
1864: Sand Creek Massacre
Gold found in Black Hills
Rush of settlers
Sitting Bull fought back
Defeated Custer at Little Bighorn Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce fought back after US took away much of their reservation
Surrendered; "I will fight no more forever"
Wars ended in 1890 with Massacre of Wounded Knee
Indians dealt with hardships like diseases contracted from white settlers and the decimation of the buffalo population http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/eight/68_03.htm Kennedy, David M., Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas A. Bailey. The American Pageant: A
History of the Republic. 14th ed. Boston: Wadsworth, 2010. “Homestead Act.” Archives. Archives, n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2013.
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/homestead-act/ “Treaty of Fort Laramie 1868.” PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 2 Jan. 2013
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/four/ftlaram.htm “A Century of Dishonor.” History Central. History Central, n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2013.
http://www.historycentral.com/Indians/CentofDishonor.html A Century of Dishonor "There is not among these three hundred bands of Indians
one which has not suffered cruelly at the hands either of the
Government or of white settlers. The poorer, the more insig
nificant, the more helpless the band, the more certain the cru
elty and outrage to which they have been subjected. This is
especially true of the bands on the Pacific slope. These Indians
found themselves of a sudden surrounded by and caught up in
the great influx of gold-seeking settlers, as helpless creatures
on a shore are caught up in a tidal wave. There was not time
for the Government to make treaties ; not even time for com
munities to make laws. The tale of the wrongs, the oppres
sions, the murders of the Pacific-slope Indians in the last thirty
years would be a volume by itself, and is too monstrous to be
believed." Indians in the West Land lost by the Indians in the Reservation; Although Indians promised a lot of land, most were taken away from the Americans. Helen Hunt Jackson felt the Indians had been mistreated by the US government
This book revealed to the public many of the wrongs which had been done to the Indians
Critics called it too sentimental
Jackson gave every member of Congress a copy, hoping to lead a crusade for Indian's rights
The book made people more aware of the Indian's situation, but did not have as great an effect as Jackson had hoped Sitting Bull of the Sioux Indians George Armstrong Custer An Indian Assimilation School Chief Joseph of Nez Perce Tribe Massacre of Wounded Knee which ended the Indian Wars