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Wendy Aleksi

on 12 June 2014

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Transcript of Oceans

By: Sarah Ravoth & Wendy Aleksi

a. fertilizers, pesticides, and toxins
a. Coral reefs
How can you help?
a. fertilizers, pesticides, and chemicals
Eutrophication has caused large "dead zones"
Dead beluga whales in the St. Lawerence are so full of chemicals they are considered "toxic waste"
b. garbage and plastics
c. acidification (eg. carbon pollution)
The United States is the largest importer of fertilizers in the world
The GPGP is like a "plastic soup"
Large amounts of plastic has been found blocking the stomachs and choking porpoises, turtles, and seabirds
The GPGP gets most of its content from Canada, the US, Mexico, and Europe
The oceans have absorbed 166 billion tonnes of CO2 since the beginning of the industrial revolution
Reductions in calcium carbonate diminishes Canada's oyster industry
A 30% loss in marine biodiversity will result in a "tipping point" for ocean at the end of the century
b. Overfishing and unsustainable fishing practices
c. Commercial whaling
Coral reefs are vulnerable to changes in water salinity, temperature, sunlight, and pollution
Plants and animals found in coral reefs could provide cures for cancer, arthritis, bacterial infections, etc.
Hunted by Japanese, Icelandic, and Nordic fleets
Japan kills ~1,500 whales each year
Overfishing = smaller catches, fewer jobs, lower revenues
Threatens food security and accessibility for poorer citizens in developing countries
There potentially 1 - 8 million undiscovered species living in coral reefs
The World Bank states the global fishing effort should be reduced by 44 - 54%
Commonly hunted types: minke,
, Antarctic,
, and
Japan began whaling in the 40s, faced with a desperate need for meat
Consumers dictate the intensity of the industry;
eg. less tuna demanded = less intense fishing
Change your attitude for having fish available 24/7
Nature is a
resource, therefore we cannot treat the oceans as endless.
Planting trees stores carbon and reduces surface runoff which would otherwise end up in the ocean
Air and Climate
• The plants in the ocean (Ex. Algae) go through the process of photosynthesis which releases oxygen into the air providing fresh air for us to breathe (algae produces somewhere between 70% and 80% of the oxygen in the world)
• Absorb almost ⅓ of the carbon dioxide discharges which are caused by humans
• Oceans form clouds which provide fresh water (water cycle)
• Partially control our weather

Climate Buffer
Economic Effects
• The ocean is one of Earth's most crucial natural resources. It accommodates us with food such as fish and shellfish (Approximately 200 billion pounds are caught each year).
• It's used for transportation in the forms of traveling from place to place and shipping supplies and goods.
• It provides a source of recreation for humans.
• It is being mined for various minerals such as: salt, sand, gravel, and some manganese, copper, nickel, iron, and cobalt can be found in the deep sea and it is being drilled for crude oil.

• Researchers are exploring the ocean to find new medications to treat cancer, bacterial infections, viruses, heart disease, pain, and other illnesses.
• Marine life contains a countless number of species of plants and animals. These creatures provide an immense storehouse of chemical compounds which are not even known on land.

A number of marine creatures have been used successfully in medical research and testing:
• A Caribbean sponge has been discovered to generate compounds used in AZT (zidovudine,Retrovir), which is used to fight the AIDS virus.
• Caribbean gorgonian (a soft coral) produces a group of compounds with anti-inflammatory properties, which are also included in an anti-wrinkle cream.
• A tentacled aquatic organism, called bryozoanBugula neritina, yields a compound being tested as a cancer drug.
• Skates (a flat fish shaped like a kite) have provided clues used in treating vision loss.
• Corals and mollusks are used to make orthopedic and cosmetic surgical implants.
• Horseshoe crabs are commonly used to test for bacterial contamination.
• Microalgae are used in vitamins and other nutritional supplements.
• Bone grafts from coral skeletons, pain relievers from sea snail venom, and infection-fighting agents from shark skin are all under study.

• Research shows that there are minerals found in the ocean's water which help with arthritis, psoriasis and even depression.
• Other skin diseases such as rosacea, eczema and rashes from plant allergies or heat are positively affected by the ocean water.
• Ocean water contains iodine which improves thyroid function and boosts the immune system.
• When you are in sea water, larger amounts of oxygen are carried throughout your bloodstream as well as nutrients. Ocean water improves the circulation of blood to your organs.

• 1950’s a company named Tidal Diamonds created by Sam Collins. This is when we started mining the ocean floor for diamonds, gold, silver, metal ores like manganese nodules and gravel mines.
• Diamonds are harder to mine in ocean but they exist in larger quantities and greater quality than those on land.
• Diamonds are mined by dredging the ocean floor to bring it up to the boat and search the sediment for valuable gems. This is not an easy procedure since it is difficult to bring sediment up to the surface, but this will most likely become a very large industry in the future once new technology is developed.
• Metal compounds, gravels, sands and gas hydrates are mined in the ocean as well.
• Manganese nodules containing nickel, copper and cobalt were initially mined in the 1960's and it was later found that Papua New Guinea was one of the few places where nodules were existing in shallow waters instead of deep waters.
• Sands and gravels are frequently mined in the United States and are they are used for the protection of beaches and to reduce the effects of erosion.

• The oceans have been fished for thousands of years and are an important part of human society.
• Fish have been significant to the world’s economy for many years, beginning with the Viking trade of cod and then continuing with fisheries including ones found in Lofoten, Europe, Italy, Portugal, Spain and India.
• In present day fisheries provide about 16% of the total world's protein although there are higher percentages in developing regions and they remain extremely important to the economy and wellbeing of communities.
• The word fisheries is in reference to any fishing activity which takes place in the ocean, whether its catching fish for the commercial fishing industry, for recreation or to obtain ornamental fish or fish oil.
• In 2000, a world total of 86 million tons of fish were caught, and China's fisheries had the highest amount of productivity, catching 1/3 of the world’s total.
• Other countries producing the most fish in order from least to greatest were Peru, Japan, the United States, Chile, Indonesia, Russia, India, Thailand, Norway and Iceland.
• The number of fish caught changes over the years, but it is somewhere around 88 million tons annually and this amount is most likely due to overfishing, economics and management practices.

• The word “shipping” is defined as the activity of transporting cargo with ships in between seaports.
• Wind-powered ships exist, but ships are usually powered by steam turbine plants or diesel engines.
• Naval ships are often used for transporting most of the trade from one country to another and they are given the name of merchant navies.
• Different types of ships include container ships, tankers, crude oil ships, product ships, chemical ships, bulk carriers, cable layers, general cargo ships, offshore supply vessels, dynamically-positioned ships, ferries, gas and car carriers, tugboats, barges and dredgers.
• Shipping is very profitable for economies worldwide.

• The ocean is a vital part of the world's climate because of its capacity to collect, drive and mix water, heat, and carbon dioxide.
• The ocean is able to hold and circulate more water, heat and carbon dioxide than Earth’s atmosphere.
• Due to the fact that the ocean can supply such large amounts of heat, seasons happen later than expected and the air above the ocean is warmer.
• Various chemical cycles taking place between the ocean and the atmosphere are linked to the climate as well by controlling the amount of radiation that is released into our environment and ecosystems.
• The atmosphere which lays directly over the ocean is unable to absorb much heat on its own, meaning that the oceans temperature must increase for it to warm up.
• Two other events that lead to the warming of the atmosphere near the ocean are the reflection of light off of the surface of the ocean or the evaporation of water from the ocean’s surface.
• The ocean’s temperature controls the climate in Earths lower atmosphere, which is why in the majority of the areas on Earth, the temperature of the ocean is the reason for the temperature of the air.
• Air temperatures worldwide are regulated by the circulation of heat by the oceans.
• Due to the high density of its water, the ocean is able to store large amounts of energy in the form of heat. The heat is stored in the upper two meters of the photic zone.
• By storing and releasing heat, the ocean can then buffer changes in temperature.
• Evaporation cools the temperature of the ocean’s water which in turn cools the atmosphere. This is mostly evident closer to the equator and the effect lessens closer to the poles.

Sea Air Provides Benefits
• When waves break on the shoreline, particles in the air break away from each other which releases ions into the atmosphere.
• Some scientists believe that sea air contains large amounts of negatively charged ions.
• Electricity, computers, TV and electronics are all sources of positive ions in our lives, but we have a shortage in negative ions.
• If our exposure to negative ions is heightened this creates many health benefits such as enhanced immune systems, increased alertness and improved concentration.

• Some jobs linked to the seafood industry are: processing, packing, transport, retail and restaurants.
• With these businesses, the seafood economy provides financial security for individuals and a valuable source of GDP.
• Oceans have a huge impact on the Canadian economy. Industries working in, on and around the oceans create jobs for about 315,000 Canadians and contribute more than $26 billion a year to the Canada’s wealth.
• For years, Canada's commercial and sport fisheries have contributed to economic growth. Since 1964, offshore oil and gas activity has helped to meet national and global energy needs while generating significant economic and employment benefit for Canadians.
• The export value of world trade in fish was US$63 billion in 2003, and is more than the combined value of net exports of rice, coffee, sugar and tea
• About 200 million livelihoods depend directly or indirectly on the fishing industry
• Half of the seafood traded globally is from developing countries
• Fish exports are a valuable source of foreign exchange for many developing countries. Globally, developing countries are net exporters of fishery products.

Rise in Demand:
• The demand for fish continues to increase, particularly in rich countries.
• Global consumption of seafood raised by 21% between 1992 and 2002.
• Fish is also an ingredient in pet food, health supplements, fishmeal and many non-food products manufactured worldwide.

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