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50 Years of EFL Teaching
neal evanson 7 January 2014
Transcript of 50 Years of EFL Teaching
Change from individual to scholastic instruction,
Examination Boards in England 1858
Heness and Sauveur's School Of Languages, Boston 1869
First Berlitz School opened in Rhode Island 1878 and
Natural / Direct Method
by 1914 nearly 200 worldwide.
Harold Palmer, 1921,
The Oral Method
. Structure and Situations.
Established IRLT in Tokyo to 1936,
Frith influenced by Malinowski at the UCL/LSE, 'Frithian' : meaning and context are central
Henry Sweet, 1899, Practical Study of Languages. The new science of phonetics
Paul Passey, 1888, International Phonetic Association
British Council formed 1940, publishing English Language Teaching Journal (ELT) in 1946
First Chair of Linguistics in London in 1944 followed by English as a Foreign Language in 1948
West's General Srvice List, 1953 / Hornby's Guide to Patterns and Usage in English, 1954
School of Applied Linguistics at the University of Edinburgh, 1957
B. F. Skinner, 1957, Verbal Behaviour
Noam Chomsky 1959, A Review (criticism) of B.F. Skinner
Randolph Quirk's 1960, The Survey of English Usage >> Quirk Corpus is now complete.
A million word survey, sampled between 1955-1985, both spoken and written texts
American Approach to ESL which by the mid-50s had become:-
The Audiolingual Method
Leonard Bloomfield at Yale> Army Specialized Training Program ASTP, 1942/43
English Language Institute formed at the University of Michigan, 1941
Charles C. Fries's work on contrastive analysis, Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language, 1945
continued by Robert Lado at Georgetown, 1957, Linguistics across cultures.
1948, Publication of Language Learning Journal
The Birth of Applied Linguistics
Chomsky's Aspects of Theory of Syntax, 1965, Universal Grammar,
George Lakoff, late 60s generative semantics (as opposed to generative syntax) Berkeley, Ca.
Wider psychology influences inspiring new perspectives:
Jean Piaget, 1986-1980, constructivism: cognitive development stages, schema(ta),cooperation.
Lev Vgostsky, 1896-1934, sociocultural: 'ZPD' and 'scaffolding'
Carl Rodgers, 1961, On Becoming a Person; Albert Maslow, 1968, Towards a Psychology of Being; Gertrude Moscowitz, 1978,
Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Language Classroom.
Caleb Gattegno's Silent Way (60s onwards) where the teacher is a facilitator mediating learning through colour coded
Cuisenaire rods and sound charts the precursor to widespread use of phonemic charts, elicitation and discovery learning.
James Asher's TPR developed in California (1965 onwards) used by Krashen to aid comprehensible input later in the 70s and early 80s
Charles Curran's CLL developed in Chicago with L1 to L2 mediated (Counseling -Learning) translation and tape recording
Georgi Lozanov's Suggestopedia where recitals of text are linked to the rhythms and harmonies of music to both relax the student
and to pace and punctuate learning. Students follow the text in textbooks where each text is translated.
Paulo Friere, 1970, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, proposed learning to be relevant and political to learners lives.
1956 Benjamin Bloom's Taxonomy Revised and applied in many educational environments to today.
Dell Hymes coined the term communicative competence( from 1966 to 1971) as additional to Chomsky's linguistic competence
Council of Europe Symposium in Ruschlikon 1971
Needs Analysis, (Richterich 1972) to specify necessary language including communicative competence (Wilkins 1972)
van EK (1973) and later with Alexander (1980) defined appropriate threshold levels which together with the concept of the notional syllabus (Wilkins, 1976)
which influenced the subsequent design of programmes, coursebooks, and tests, worldwide.
Larry Selinker's 1972 paper on the role of interlanguage as systematic and distinct and so partial competence may be a more realistic objective.
Joan Rubin's What the 'good language learner' can teach us, 1975; learner strategies
Conference at Lancaster University convened by Candlin in 1973,
The Communicative Teaching of English
Henry Widdowson 1972, C.N. Canlin 1973
Emergence of ESP, Widdowson and Allen 1974, English in Physical Science >> English in Focus
1972, Special English Language Materials for Overseas University Students (SELMOUS)
later The British Association of Lectures in English for Academic Purposes (BALEAP) in 1989
Henry Widdowson, Christopher Brumfit, Christopher Candlin, William Littlewood, Keith Johnson, Jeremy Harmer
Sandra Savignon, Marianne Celce-Murcia, Diane Larsen Freeman, Nina Spada, Patsy Lightbrown. Douglas Brown, Jim Scrivener
Southern Hemisphere Proponents:-
Jack Richards, David Nunan (TBL),
Finocchiaro and Brumfit, 1983 contrast the Audiolingual Method with CLT Approach
EAP study Birmingham University/ Malaysian plus John Munby's Communicative Design
>> British Council's English Language Testing (ELTS) deployed in 40 countries in 1980 >>>IELTS together with TOEFL
Applied Linguistics Journal 1980
COBUILD established at Birmingham University, 1980 >> The Bank of English >> 525 million words as of 2005
Modern Corpus Linguistics
1979 RSA Cettificates of Teaching (pilot)
Henry Widdowson, 1978, Teaching Language as Communication.
Brumfit and Johnson, 1979, The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching.
Canale and Swain, 1980, extension of communicative competence
Steven Krashen late 70s >>
The Natural Approach
with Tracy Terrell 1983
i+1, affective filter, comprehensible input, L1 and L2 acquisition not learning are the same.
Bangalore Project, 1979-84
Task-based Learning (TBL)
Johnson 1982 TBL deep end strategy
Candlin 1987 Towards task-based language learning
David Nunan 1989 Design tasks for the Communicative Classroom
Jeremy Harmer's first edition of The Practice of English Language Teaching, 1983
Howatt in 1984 distinguished between a 'strong' and a 'weak' form of CLT.
The 'great debate' between Michael Swan and Henry Widdowson on the value of CLT
in the ELT Journal 1985
1985 RSA/Cambridge CTEFLA
Jane Willis, 1996, TBL, upside down PPP
Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL
Content-based Teaching /Instruction CBT/CBI >>> Immersion.
Data from Canadian Immersion Programmes: Merrill Swain and Cummins
Other SLA Advances:-
Merrill Swain's Output Hypotheis, 1995
Richard Schmidt's Noticing Hypothesis, 1990
Michael Long's Interaction Hypothesis, 1996
Pienemann's Processability and Teachability Theories 1988
Jim Scrivener's first edition of Learning English, 1994
Claire Kramsch's Language and Culture, 1998
Focus on Form, Doughty and Williams 1998, FonF as opposed to FonFs
Form-focused instruction 1997, Nina Spada
Impacts of CLT:-
Accuracy versus Fluency
Mechanical, Meaningful and Communicative Practice
Authentic versus graded material
Learner autonomy, independent/negotiated learning
2000, Dogme discussion group, Scott Thornbury and Luke Meddings
2000, Averil Coxhead's Academic Word List (AWL ) Specific Corpora
2001 Kumaravadivelu's Towards a postmethod pedagogy.
2002 Stephen Bax, The end of CLT: a context approach to language teaching
Cambridge CELTA replaces RSA/Cambridge, 2001
The Lexical Syllabus, 1990, Dave Willis, Michael Lewis, 1993, The Lexical Approach
Rebecca Oxford, Language Learning Strategies, 1990.
BNC established 1991-94
2011 IATEFL Conference in Brighton
2012 IATEFL Conference in Glasgow
Growth in new universities in the UK and worldwide.
Expansion of Applied Linguistics First Congresses internationally, 1964 and in the UK, 1967
Michael Halliday, University of London Programme in Linguistics and Language Teaching mother tongue materials1964-71 > Cohesion in English 1976.
Systematic Functional Grammar (Linguistics)
Growth of private language schools into larger organisations Eurocentre and Imternational House, IH. (Teacher Training)
Materials and lesson planning built on the Direct Methods including Palmer/Hornby and created 'situations' which were further embellished using audiolingual methods.
Situational Language Teaching
. PP without the final P which was to come in the 70s
Increase in overseas students especially from the newly independent Commonwealth 36,000 out of (55,000 in 1961) planning to take postgraduate qualifications in the UK.
ATEFL later IATEFL formed in 1967
TESOL Quarterly first published (Virginia, US)
Conference for Languages for Special Purposes1969 >
English for Special (Specific) Purposes (ESP)
Growth in air travel and economic wealth and immigration
New technologies: cassette/record players, projectors and language laboratories
New media: Increase in published material, radio and by the end of the 60s widespread TV
TEFL became a profession: First plan of certification of teachers through RSA, 1967
Railways, travel and urbanisation.
Industrialisation, invention and self-improvement
Increasing population and a middle class
The end of the Victorian era, 1901
WW2 ends 1945
The Windrush, 1946:
Newspaper sales peak at 17 million per
day in 1951
Britain joins the EEC, 1973
Wide spread television in the home
Increase in trade.
First PCs 1981
Mobile Phones, 1984
Byram, M, ed. 2000. The Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning London: Routledge
Celce-Murcia M. ed. 1991 Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Rowley Massachusetts: Newbury House
Crystal, D. 2003. English as a Global Language 2nd Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Harmer, J. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching. Harlow: Pearson Education
Howatt. A.P.R. 2004 A History of English Language Teaching Oxford UP.
Richards, J.C. and Rodgers, T.S. 2001 Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Cambridge UP.
Scrivener, J. (2005). Learning Teaching. Oxford: Macmillan Education.
Thornbury, S. 2006. An A-Z of ELT. Oxford: Macmillan.
1992, The State Education Development Commission in China imposed a new curriculum based around communicative competence.
Korea and Japan also encouraged the use of CLT in national frameworks during this period.
2013 IATEFL Conference in Liverpool
2014 IATEFL Conference in Harrogate