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Social and Gender Roles during the Post-Classical Period

In the Middle East, Asia, Eastern and Western Europe, India, the Americas, and Africa

Dick Face

on 6 December 2012

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Transcript of Social and Gender Roles during the Post-Classical Period

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli In the Middle East, Asia, Eastern and Western Europe, India, the Americas, and Africa. Social and Gender roles during the Post Classical Period Asia (Southeast) Byzantine Empire: Post-classical Era
The empire socially and economically depended on Constantinople's control over the countryside.
Peasants supplied the food and most tax revenues.
Despite the busy trade, the large merchant class never developed political power.
Women occasionally held higher positions such as the throne, but were still inferior to men . The Americas India By Nic Hibbs, Seann Romero, Samantha Ramirez, and Marissa Sharp The Middle East Eastern Europe Africa Additional Sources The increasing complexity of social structures led to the limitation of women roles.
Also as the complexity of the economy was increasing, more tension was created between landlords and peasants.
Apart from taxation and borrowing, governments left merchants alone, allowing them to gain an independent role in society
After 1300, post-classical Western civilization declined.
Major wars occurred between France and England which spread economic distress. Vietnam Japan China before the Han China after the Han - African women were mostly equal
- Patrilinear, rather than matrilinear
- Polygamy was common Women Society - Nuclear family basis of society
- The gap between the King and the commoner was not as big
- Slavery, mostly POWs, some women
- Grouped by age Islam took root in 650 c.e. and began to spread throughout the upper classes
During this time upper class women had less rights than lower classes
Soon islam spread throughout all classes
All women did, however, inherit property and according to the Qur'an women were to be treated with respect The Arab Empire began a large conquest in the 7th century c.e. and conquered people of many different religions.
These people were accepted but were below the Muslims and had to pay a tax.
The Muslims also saw the people with monotheistic religions as higher than people with polytheistic religions. :D ~ Western Europe Traditional Indian society was based upon a hierarchy, the famous Indian Caste system.
Pariahs were the lowest of the low, the outcast of society.
Shudras weren't better, but to be acknowledged in society, at least being a slave was comforting.
Vaishyas were the next class, and they were a merchant based, middle class.
Kshatriyas were the nobles, or the ruling class of this terrible pyramid of power.
The last caste consisted of Brahmin, which were holy teachers who taught Hinduism, and influence the continuation of this system. Islamic society has basically remained egalitarian because, according to the Qur'an, all men are equal in Allah's eyes
There was a well defined upper class made up of ruling families, senior officials, and wealthy merchants.
Also, there was wide spread slavery made up of Sub-Saharan Africans, since a Muslim cannot be enslaved China's social organization was based like any others, with slaves and workers at the bottom, artisans, and merchants in the center, and the emperor and bureacrats at the top.
twenty diferent levels
Slaves were very uncommon, so the lowest class consisted of tenants and wage laborers, the middle consisted of farmers, merchants, and artisans.
Many average merchants wore all white, and had to pay high taxes. Higher merchants could avoid registering as "merchants" and could become richer, and more powerful than some government officials.
Scholars and government officials were on the next step, however, the scholars broke off into a gentry class, and the government became corrupt and fell due to the belief in personal relationships, rather than being in public office.
Nobles and Lords were the next higher class and were similar to apartment owners, they got paid for the retainers that worked on their land, or performed services for them.
The Emperor was at the top, but he was overruled by his mother and just under him were kings of the same clan. http://www.conservapedia.com/images/thumb/a/ab/The_Americas_satellite_map.jpg/280px-The_Americas_satellite_map.jpg http://www.idf.org/sites/default/files/africa_6.jpg Women were expected to obey the wills of their father, their husbands, and their eldest son, after the husband passed away.
However, most deviated from listening to their son or fathers to using them, as in case of being empress.
Women sometimes branched out to low-income paying jobs aside from the regular houshold chores, such as cooking and cleaning
Weaving silk and making textiles were among the popular jobs that brought in income, however, some became singer, dancers, and even sorceresses. Thesis http://ed101.bu.edu/StudentDoc/current/ED101fa11/aoshins/aoshins/uploads/8/9/8/7/8987311/5740327_orig.png (Witchcraft? Where are we, Europe?) Hinsch, Bret. (2002). Women in Imperial China. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Ch'ü, T'ung-tsu. (1972). Han Dynasty China: Volume 1: Han Social Structure. Edited by Jack L. Dull. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. During the Post-Classical Era, which spanned from 600-1450 c.e., the social structures and gender roles in the Middle East, Asia, Eastern and Western Europe, the Americas, and Africa underwent significant changes due to the spread of religion, changes in economic stability, and changes in government structure and stability. During this time, gender roles changed for the worse in the Middle East and India, while they improved in most other areas. Social structure in areas such as Western Europe evolved because of a more stable economy, while others such as Africa and the Americas changed with changes in foreign encounters and political instability. Hatun Ruta(General Public), Yanaconas(slaves) High Chiefs, Nobles Royalty, Family members Sapa Inca(King) Aztec Maya Inca General Public were in Calpullis Women -Stayed at home, cleaned, wove
-Could enter priesthood
-Parents chose husband
-Had few more rights than other places Society Included women Women -still patriliniear
-still had rights -Many were farmers
-Empire built from labor Society Women -Like most other American women
-Able to choose husband from immediate tribal group
-Could escape be serving as "selected virgin," noblewoman http://boivieapedia.pbworks.com/w/page/8081120/Song%20Dynasty http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bound_feet_(X-ray).jpg Had public services such as retirement homes, graveyards, and medical clinics.
Had a similar social structure to the Han Dynasty, and even built a mail system based off a Han Dynasty Idea.
Women enjoyed more rights than their Han ancestors, with higher chances of inheriting property and larger dowries which led to more controlling of property
They also educated their sons, and there were even amazing women writers and poets
Oh, and don't forget the Joys of foot binding Japan, Korea, and Vietnam all had systems roughly based on China due to the almighty power of China's Empire.
Japan was similar, but less of a middle class, with Daimyo (as the nobles at the time) controlling the masses of peasants with promises of protection for agricultural work.
The only true middle class, may have been the Samurai.
The Samurai were not the most powerful class, but they had the important job of protecting the Daimyo and his peasants.
They were taken as children, and were raised as beings of respect, so even the higher classes made sure they were not offending them. http://people.howstuffworks.com/samurai2.htm http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/Samurai Vietnam was the one mostly influenced by Chinese culture, which was a territory mostly under the control of the Chinese.
Vietnam was under the Han's control, so it had most of the same social and gender structures.
However, after a millennium of Chinese rule, the Vietnamese managed to push off Chinese rule and three Mongol invasions.
At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, the Viet's rule was interrupted by invading Mongols, but it was quickly brought back into Vietnamese power. Totman, Conrad (2002). A History of Japan. Blackwell. "The Trần Dynasty and the Defeat of the Mongols". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 28 April 2010. http://batin.com.vn/travel-blog/meaning-of-colors-in-vietnams-folk-culture/ http://warandgame.com/2008/11/08/ I got them from this website, and it didn't show exactly where. Some blog post. While the caste system had it's ups and downs, women were not exempt from this "universal" law
Women had an "okay" place in this society, as in Hinduism, they have several female gods, showing that they were respected. Gerald D. Berreman (1972). Race, Caste, and Other Invidious Distinctions in Social Stratification. University of California, Berkeley. http://swilliams24.wordpress.com/cultural-analysis-ancient-india%E2%80%99s-creation-myths-and-caste-system-influence/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/india/
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