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Cherry Du

on 27 November 2012

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Transcript of 科普網站架構-卡片分類法研究

Sience popular 卡片分類法 Card Sorting 研究目的 為建立本校師生之閱讀風氣,並配合圖書館週推廣活動辦理,特規劃「2011圖書採購節」活動,以期將閱讀習慣深植於生活中。本次活動擬由圖書館帶領參與活動之師生至國內極具特色及閱讀氛圍,並擁有豐富多元的閱讀資源的誠品書店選購圖書,藉由圖書館與書店結合之活動,激發同學對於閱讀之興趣,以及透過誠品書店其明亮、舒適的閱讀場域及氛圍,讓參與的同學沉浸在書香中;另一方面,讓同學能夠採購心目中理想書籍,給予其主動選擇館藏的機會,藉此擴充館藏、貼近讀者需求,並形塑圖書館多元活潑的形象。 Informetrics How someone seeks information can vary by age, level of education, intelligence, and discipline
Among the general population, seeking information is personal (73%), solving day-to-day problem (52%)
Job-related issues, consumer issues, housing and household maintenance issues, education issues (adult education, parenting…) Information Seeking and Gathering Understanding information needs, seeking, use, and users Character of Information Science Information Science – Part I Bradford zones: the ranked journals could be grouped into categories, each containing roughly the same number of articles and increasing numbers of journals in each subsequent zone
The first zone, called the core zone, contains the small number of highly productive journals.
The ratio between the number of journals in subsequent zones was observed to be approximately 1:n:n2, where n is referred to as the Bradford multiplier.
Example: in a given disciplinary bibliography
The first group of 9 titles: 429 articles
The next group of 59 titles (9*5): 499 articles
The last group of 258 titles (9*5*5): 404 articles Bradford’s Law (Cont.) Scientometrics – quantitative study of scientific activities
Overlap with bibliometrics, but limits to quantitative study of scientific disciplines and associated activities related to scientific and technological research and development
Address the quantitative and comparative evaluation of scientists’, groups’, institutions’, and countries’ contribution to the advancement of knowledge
In addition to published documents, consider manpower, instrumentation, facilities, and economic and financial inputs and outputs as well
Webometrics – informetric studies of Web phenomena
Cybermetrics – go beyond the Web to include all aspects of electronic resources Bibliometrics, Scientometrics, and Other Metrics (Cont.) (Econometrics) employees productivity
(Demography) cities  populations
(Linguistics) words (type)  occurrences (token)
Books  # of loan times
Researchers  # of publications
Journals  # of papers
Paper  # of citations Information Production Process (IPP) First used in the late 1970s (Nacke, 1979)
Deal with the measurement of information phenomena and the application of mathematical methods to the disciplines’ problems
This quantitative study of recorded discourse may relate to any medium (including electronic formats)
Information production process (IPP)
Measureable sources produce items
An author (source) produces articles (items)
A text produces words
A user produces queries
Each of these processes may be studied and measured Informetrics Search abilities vary among individuals
Age, intelligence, analytical ability, manual dexterity, IT capability, marginalization
The principle of least effort
People seek the most convenient source to meet their needs, even when they know that this source might produce information of low quality than other information sources
People’s search behavior on the Web varies widely
Personal attributes: cognitive style, level of anxiety related to searching, previous Web-search experiences, gender, domain (subject expertise)
Web use and youth – information behavior of the research of the future Findings of Information Needs, Seeking, Use, and Users (Cont.) Kuhlthau's Information Search Process The information user and the universe of knowledge Information needs
An uncertainty that arises in an individual and which the individual believes can be satisfied by information (Krikelas, 1983)
A recognition that your knowledge is inadequate to satisfy a goal that you have (Case, 2002)
Information wants (desires) and information needs
Wants: desire for information to satisfy an uncertainty
Needs: condition in which information is required to resolve a problem
An inverted-U relationship between the volume of information and decision quality
Approach to study information needs: individual/institution/library; disciplines Information Needs Features of Information Science Information science research
Knowledge organization
Information profession
Societal issues
Information industry
Publishing and distribution
Information technologies
Electronic information systems and services
Subject-specific sources and applications
Libraries and library services
Government and legal information issues Information Science Fields Spectrum of Information Disciplines Physical: what are the features and laws of the recorded-information universe?
Social: how do people related to, seek, and use information?
Design: how can access to recorded information be made most rapid and effective? Big Questions addressed by IS Memex Vannevar Bush (Electrical Engineer)
Published an essay “As We May Think”(1945)
Hypothetical information retrieval and annotation system (Memex)
Using technology to organize and retrieve information
Creating trails of information
Electronically annotating existing documents
A desk-sized machine could store and use the contents
Community of scholars sharing and exchanging information
Think about iPad, iPad, and Web 2.0 Vannevar Bush, Memex and Digital Library A focus on the phenomenon of information regardless of the format or context
Attention to the entire information cycle from creation to use
Recognition of the interdisciplinary nature of the field, drawing from scientific, social scientific, and psychological disciplines as well as library science Features of the Definition by Taylor (1966) LIS professionals must develop information systems that can acquire, organize, maintain and dissemination information with minimum effort and cost to users
LIS professionals must know how and why people use information
Information-seeking behaviors, information needs Introduction Introduction
Character of Information Science
Features of Information Science
Understanding information needs, seeking, use, and users
Bibliometrics, informetrics, citation analysis, scholar impact
Information storage and retrieval
Management and administrative issues
Emerging fields in information science Outline Journal Productivity (1934, 1948): the inverse relationship between the number of articles published in a subject area and the number of journals in which the articles appear
Analysis of journal productivity has also been used as a tool for collection management in libraries by identifying core journals in subject areas
In a well-defined subject area, a small number of journals account for a sizeable portion of the total publications in that area, whereas increasing numbers of journals publish fewer and fewer articles in the area Bradford’s Law of Scatter Lotka (1926) studied authorship patterns in the fields of chemistry and physics.
When one tallies the number of publications a given author contributes to a discipline over time, most contribute a small number; very few are prolific contributors

f(x) : proportion of authors contributing x publications
k, b: parameters for a discipline
k represents the proportion of authors contributing a single paper
Original form: the number of authors producing n contributions is approximately equal to 1/n2 of the number of authors that produce only one contribution Lotka’s Law of Author Productivity Statistical bibliography – quantitative studies of disciplinary literatures
Lotka, Bradford, Zipf, Price
Regularities in authorship, journal publications, word usage, and scientific literature growth
Bibliometrics – the application of quantitative methods to the study of information resources
Analysis of circulation patterns
Studies of in-house use
Aging studies
Collection overlap Bibliometrics, Scientometrics, and Other Metrics There is a difference between information seeking and information gathering
Immediate need vs. deferred need
People usually search for information in some context
People prefer personal rather than institutional resources
People seldom see librarians as a source of information
But they think of the library as a primary source
Visibility of librarians
Information seeking proceeds in stages Findings of Information Needs, Seeking, Use, and Users Gloria J. Leckie, Karen E. Pettigrew and Christian Sylvain, (1996) “Modelling the Information-Seeking of Professionals: A General Model Derived from Research on Engineers, Health Care Professionals and Lawyers,” Library Quarterly, vol. 66, no. 2, p. 180  The Leckie, Pettigrew, and Sylvain (1996) model Wilson Model (1981) 冒險獎勵理論 激勵因素 中介變素 壓力調適理論 Wilson Model (1996) Summers et al. (1999) Core concerns of IS
Storage (digital libraries)
Communication (information retrieval and intelligent agent interaction)
Use of information (knowledge management)
IS’s scientific, social scientific, and humanistic characteristics
It is not surprising that IS, which is dependent upon human activities such as writing articles, having information needs, creating search strategies, and making relevance judgements, shows itself to have a mixture of science-like and nonscience-like characteristics Core Concerns of IS Summers, et al. (1999). Information Science in 2010: A Loughborough University View.
Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50, 1153-1162. IS is not institution based
De-institutionalized library science
Information science comprises a library without walls
The entire world of information
Information scientists is the agent who acquires, organizes, and disseminates that information to help people meet their needs, whether practical, theoretical, religious, or aesthetic  IS and librarianship
It might be that information science is a different way of looking at many of the problems and tasks that have confronted librarians for may decades Information and Library without Wall Taylor, R. S. (1966). Professional Aspects of Information Science
and Technology. In Annual Review of Information Science and Technology.
Vol. 1. Edited by Carlos A. Cuadra. New York: Wiley, 15-40. The science that investigates the properties and behavior of information, the forces governing the flow of information, and the means of processing information for optimum accessibility and usability.
The processes include organization, dissemination, collection, organization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, and use of information.
The field is derived from or related to mathematics, logic, linguistics, psychology, computer technology, operations research, the graphic arts, communications, library science, management, etc. Defining Information Science The relationship between the frequency of a word and its rank can be represented as
(rank-frequency) (Zipf’s First Law)
r=word rank, f=frequency, C=constant

The number of tokens (occurrences) associated with the rth ranked type (distinct words)
Only holds true for words of high frequency
The low end represents the most productive sources presents in rank order Zipf’s Law of Word Frequencies
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