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HUNGER

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Gemma Waters

on 25 November 2014

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Transcript of HUNGER

HUNGER
The Psychological Approach to Hunger
Image by Tom Mooring
Environmental and cultural model
The Biological Explanation of Hunger
WHY DO WE GET HUNGRY?
WHY DOES THIS MATTER?
TODAY'S AIMS:

We propose that the models of hunger interact

Give a brief summary and critique of each separate model

show that an interacting view is relevant today with regards to dieting and obesity

The Biological Set Point
(Powley and Keesey, 1970 vs Levitsky (2002)
Dual-Centre Feeding Theory
-> VMH = satiety centre
-> LH = feeding centre
-> PVN = appetite stimulation and reduction
-> supported by Gold
et al
. (1973)
The ‘ob’ gene
(Zhang et al., 1994)
Supported by empirical research - variables controlled
e.g. Gold
et al
. (1973) and Zhang
et al
. (1994)

Empathy versus stigma





Animal research is difficult to extrapolate to humans

Reductionist - over-simplifies why we experience hunger

Deterministic

Contradictions within the model itself

An integrated approach
Availability of Food
Taste
Variety
Presence of Others
Cultural norms
Offers simple, understandable explanation of hunger attribution

Explanation by well supported and thoroughly researched concepts -






Not scientific in understanding - social research may involve more confounding variables


Environmental factors are not cross cultural. Research dominated by Western mealtimes, not generalisable


Testing on rats - not ecologically valid




Davis et al (2007) - Biological
Wadden et al (2002) - Environmental and psychology
Homeostasis
This is where the PVN, VMH and LH are located
References:

Brown, K.A. & Ogden, J. (2004) Children’s eating attitudes and behaviour: a study of the modelling and control theories of parental influence. Health Education Research.
Oxford Journals, 19
(3), 261-271.

de Castro, J.M. & Brewer, E.M. (1992). The amount eaten in meals by humans is a power function of the number of people present.
Physiology & Behaviour, 51
(1), 121-125.

Davis, C., Patte, K., Levitan, R., Read, C., Tweed, S., & Curtis, C. (2007). From motivation to behaviour: A model of reward sensitivity, overeating, and food preferences in the risk profile for obesity.
Appetite,
48, 12-19

Festinger, L., Schachter, S. & Back, K. (1950).
Social Pressures in Informal Groups, a Study of Human Factors in Housing
. Oxford: Harper

Field, A. E., Austin, S.B., Taylor, C. B., Malspeis, S., Rosner, B., Rockett, H. R., Gillman, M. W. & Colditz, G. A. (2003) Relation Between Dieting and Weight Change Among Preadolescents.
Pediatrics
.
112(
4), 900- 906

Garg, N., Wansink, B. & Inman, J.J. (2007). The influence of incidental affect on consumers' food intake.
Journal of Marketing. 71
(1), 194-206

Gold, R.M., Jones, A.P., Sawchenko, P.E. & Kapatos, G. (1977). Paraventricular area: Critical focus of a longitudinal neurocircuitry mediating food intake.
Physiology and Behaviour. 18
(6), 1111-1119. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(77)90019-1

Goldman, S.J., Herman, C.P. & Polivy, J. (1991). Is the effect of a social model on eating attenuated by hunger?.
Appetite, 17
(2),129-140

Herman, P.C. & Polivy, J. (1983). A boundary model for the regulation of eating.
Psychiatric Annals, 13
(12), 918-927.

Hossain, P., Kawar, B and El Nahas, M. (2007) Obesity and Diabetes in the Developing World - A Growing Challenge.
The New England journal of Medicine
.
356
(3), 213-215

Levitsky, D.A. (2002). Putting behaviour back into feeding behaviour: A tribute to George Collier.
Appetite, 38
(2). 143-148. doi: 10.1006/appe.2001.0465

Lowe, M.R. & Butryn, M.L. (2007). Hedonic Hunger: A new dimension of appetite?.
Physiology & Behaviour
,
91
(4), 432-439. Doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.04.006

McLean, J.A., Barr, S.I. & Prior, J.C. (2001). Cognitive dietary restraint is associated with higher urinary cortisol excretion in healthy premenopausal women.
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 73
(1), 7-12.

Ogden, J., Coop, N., Cousins, C., Crump, R., Field. L., Hughes, S. & Woodger, N. (2013). Distraction, the desire to eat and food intake. Towards an expanded model of mindless eating.
Appetite, 62,
119-126. Doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.11.023

Powley, T.L. & Keesey, R.E. (1970). Relationship of body weight to the lateral hypothalamic feeding syndrome.
Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology
,
70
(1). 25-36. doi: 10.1037/h0028390

Touyz, S.W., O'Sullivan, B.T., Gertler, R. & Beumont, P.J. (1988). Anorexia nervosa in a woman totally blind since birth.
The British Journal of Psychiatry. 153
, 248-250. Doi: 10.1192/bjp.153.2.248

Wadden, T.A., Brownell, K.D. & Foster, G.D. (2002). Obesity: Responding to the Global Epidemic.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70
(3), 510-525.

Weingarten, H.P., (1983). Conditioned Cues Elicit Feeding in Sated Rats: A Role for Learning in Meal Initiation.
Science, 220,
431-433.

Yager, J., Hatton, C.A. & Ma, L. (1986). Anorexia nervosa in a woman totally blind since the age of two.
The British Journal of Psychiatry, 149
, 506-9

Zhang, Y., Proenca, Y., Maffei, M., Barone, M., Leopold, L. & Friedman, J.M. (1994). Positional cloning of the mouse
obese
gene and its human homologue.
Nature, 372
(1), 425-432.
Health Concerns
(McLean, Barr & Prior, 2001)
Social Pressures
(Festinger, Schachter & Back, 1950)
Mood
(Lowe & Butryn, 2007;
Garg et al., 2007)
Anticipation of Food
Validity

Explains how people act on their hunger, not just why they are hungry.


Mood is a very subjective area - it may be experienced differently by each individual

Psychologically perceived health concerns may not be the same for each individual.

The blind (Yager et al., 1986; Touyz, 1988)
Biological
Psychological
Environmental/Cultural
Distraction
(Ogden et al., 2013)
Social Modelling -
Goldman, Herman & Polivy, 1991
Classical Conditioning -
Weingarten, 1983
Social Learning -
Brown & Ogden, 2004
Social Facilitation -
deCastro, 2002



for example...
Dieting
Herman and Polivy, (1984) - Boundary Theory
- Biological set point.

- Dieters place a cognitive set point below this.

- The body attempts to regulate hunger with respect to this new set point.
TO CONCLUDE...
We need an integrated approach
combine all factors
and apply to relevant issues of dieting and obesity


Genes
Chemical Signals (e.g leptin)
Brain structures
Homestasis
Anticipation of food
Social Pressures
Health Concerns
Distractions
Mood
Availiability
Presence of others
Taste
Variety
Cultural Norms
Hunger and Eating
Hungry now, anyone?
Relevance to today:
Hossain, Kawar
and Nahas (2007)
Relevance to today:
Field et al., (2003)
Obesity
Full transcript