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Transcript of HUNGER
The Psychological Approach to Hunger
Image by Tom Mooring
Environmental and cultural model
The Biological Explanation of Hunger
WHY DO WE GET HUNGRY?
WHY DOES THIS MATTER?
We propose that the models of hunger interact
Give a brief summary and critique of each separate model
show that an interacting view is relevant today with regards to dieting and obesity
The Biological Set Point
(Powley and Keesey, 1970 vs Levitsky (2002)
Dual-Centre Feeding Theory
-> VMH = satiety centre
-> LH = feeding centre
-> PVN = appetite stimulation and reduction
-> supported by Gold
The ‘ob’ gene
(Zhang et al., 1994)
Supported by empirical research - variables controlled
. (1973) and Zhang
Empathy versus stigma
Animal research is difficult to extrapolate to humans
Reductionist - over-simplifies why we experience hunger
Contradictions within the model itself
An integrated approach
Availability of Food
Presence of Others
Offers simple, understandable explanation of hunger attribution
Explanation by well supported and thoroughly researched concepts -
Not scientific in understanding - social research may involve more confounding variables
Environmental factors are not cross cultural. Research dominated by Western mealtimes, not generalisable
Testing on rats - not ecologically valid
Davis et al (2007) - Biological
Wadden et al (2002) - Environmental and psychology
This is where the PVN, VMH and LH are located
Brown, K.A. & Ogden, J. (2004) Children’s eating attitudes and behaviour: a study of the modelling and control theories of parental influence. Health Education Research.
Oxford Journals, 19
de Castro, J.M. & Brewer, E.M. (1992). The amount eaten in meals by humans is a power function of the number of people present.
Physiology & Behaviour, 51
Davis, C., Patte, K., Levitan, R., Read, C., Tweed, S., & Curtis, C. (2007). From motivation to behaviour: A model of reward sensitivity, overeating, and food preferences in the risk profile for obesity.
Festinger, L., Schachter, S. & Back, K. (1950).
Social Pressures in Informal Groups, a Study of Human Factors in Housing
. Oxford: Harper
Field, A. E., Austin, S.B., Taylor, C. B., Malspeis, S., Rosner, B., Rockett, H. R., Gillman, M. W. & Colditz, G. A. (2003) Relation Between Dieting and Weight Change Among Preadolescents.
4), 900- 906
Garg, N., Wansink, B. & Inman, J.J. (2007). The influence of incidental affect on consumers' food intake.
Journal of Marketing. 71
Gold, R.M., Jones, A.P., Sawchenko, P.E. & Kapatos, G. (1977). Paraventricular area: Critical focus of a longitudinal neurocircuitry mediating food intake.
Physiology and Behaviour. 18
(6), 1111-1119. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(77)90019-1
Goldman, S.J., Herman, C.P. & Polivy, J. (1991). Is the effect of a social model on eating attenuated by hunger?.
Herman, P.C. & Polivy, J. (1983). A boundary model for the regulation of eating.
Psychiatric Annals, 13
Hossain, P., Kawar, B and El Nahas, M. (2007) Obesity and Diabetes in the Developing World - A Growing Challenge.
The New England journal of Medicine
Levitsky, D.A. (2002). Putting behaviour back into feeding behaviour: A tribute to George Collier.
(2). 143-148. doi: 10.1006/appe.2001.0465
Lowe, M.R. & Butryn, M.L. (2007). Hedonic Hunger: A new dimension of appetite?.
Physiology & Behaviour
(4), 432-439. Doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.04.006
McLean, J.A., Barr, S.I. & Prior, J.C. (2001). Cognitive dietary restraint is associated with higher urinary cortisol excretion in healthy premenopausal women.
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 73
Ogden, J., Coop, N., Cousins, C., Crump, R., Field. L., Hughes, S. & Woodger, N. (2013). Distraction, the desire to eat and food intake. Towards an expanded model of mindless eating.
119-126. Doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.11.023
Powley, T.L. & Keesey, R.E. (1970). Relationship of body weight to the lateral hypothalamic feeding syndrome.
Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology
(1). 25-36. doi: 10.1037/h0028390
Touyz, S.W., O'Sullivan, B.T., Gertler, R. & Beumont, P.J. (1988). Anorexia nervosa in a woman totally blind since birth.
The British Journal of Psychiatry. 153
, 248-250. Doi: 10.1192/bjp.153.2.248
Wadden, T.A., Brownell, K.D. & Foster, G.D. (2002). Obesity: Responding to the Global Epidemic.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70
Weingarten, H.P., (1983). Conditioned Cues Elicit Feeding in Sated Rats: A Role for Learning in Meal Initiation.
Yager, J., Hatton, C.A. & Ma, L. (1986). Anorexia nervosa in a woman totally blind since the age of two.
The British Journal of Psychiatry, 149
Zhang, Y., Proenca, Y., Maffei, M., Barone, M., Leopold, L. & Friedman, J.M. (1994). Positional cloning of the mouse
gene and its human homologue.
(McLean, Barr & Prior, 2001)
(Festinger, Schachter & Back, 1950)
(Lowe & Butryn, 2007;
Garg et al., 2007)
Anticipation of Food
Explains how people act on their hunger, not just why they are hungry.
Mood is a very subjective area - it may be experienced differently by each individual
Psychologically perceived health concerns may not be the same for each individual.
The blind (Yager et al., 1986; Touyz, 1988)
(Ogden et al., 2013)
Social Modelling -
Goldman, Herman & Polivy, 1991
Classical Conditioning -
Social Learning -
Brown & Ogden, 2004
Social Facilitation -
Herman and Polivy, (1984) - Boundary Theory
- Biological set point.
- Dieters place a cognitive set point below this.
- The body attempts to regulate hunger with respect to this new set point.
We need an integrated approach
combine all factors
and apply to relevant issues of dieting and obesity
Chemical Signals (e.g leptin)
Anticipation of food
Presence of others
Hunger and Eating
Hungry now, anyone?
Relevance to today:
and Nahas (2007)
Relevance to today:
Field et al., (2003)