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Sahil Lutchman

on 19 August 2014

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Transcript of Neuroanatomy


Spinal cord
Brain stem
Cerebral cortex
Frontal lobe
Parietal lobe
Occipital lobe
Temporal lobe
Basal ganglia
Motor Function
Conduit function
Integrative function
Pathway for ascending sensory tracts and cerebellar tracts to the thalamus
Pathway for descending motor tracts to reach the spinal cord
Reticular formation
Centers for control
Extends throughout the dorsal parts of the brain stem
White matter
Gray matter
Consists of nuclei involves in the centers of control
Cranial nerve nuclei
Spinoreticular pathways for poorly localised pain perception
Reticulospinal pathways (extrapyramidal tracts)
Ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) consists of sensory axons that project to the cerebral cortex
Cranial nerve III to XII motor and sensory nuclei in the brain stem and fibers
Vestibulospinal pathway
Reticulospinal pathway
Tectospinal pathway
Rubrospinal pathway
Compares incoming sensory information with motor output information that is received from the corticopontine fibres
Receives sensory information about
Unconscious proprioception from ascending tracts
inferior olivary nuclei which receive input from the
Spinal cord
Spino-olivary tracts
Brain stem
Red nucleus
Cerebral cortex
If there is a mismatch between what the muscles should be doing and what signal from the muscles show
It sends signals via the thalamus
Primary cortex to correct movement
Performed in a smooth co-ordinated fashion
Posterior cranial fossa, covered by the tentorium cerebelli (dura and arachnoid mater)
Arbor vitae
Regions in horizontal plane
Blood supply
Gray matter in series of slender, parallel ridges
Deep tracts of white matter
2 Lateral hemispheres
Superior cerebellar arteries
Posterior inferior cerebellar arteries
Anterior inferior cerebellar arteries
Seperated by fissures
Primary fissure
Posterolateral fissure
Anterior lobe
Posterior lobe
Posterior lobe
Flocculondular lobe
Input into the anterior lobe from different regions
Larges and project to the posterior lobe
Posterior spinocerebellar tracts
Olivocerebellar tracts
Vestibulocerebellar tracts
Carry afferents to Pontocerebellars from pontine nuclei
Connect the posterior lobe to the pons
Output pathway from the deep cerebellar nuclei (dentate)
Extends from the medulla oblongata to the L1/L2 intervertebral disc ending as the conus medullaris
Length is 42cm to 45cm in adults with a diameter of 2cm
Filum terminale is an extension of the pia mater that runs from conus medullaris to the coccyx
Nerves from the lumbar, sacral and coccygeal regions run inferiorly to form the cauda equina
Gray mater
White mater
Descending tracts
Ascending tracts
Cervical plexus
Brachial plexus

Supplies the skin and muscles of the head and neck, superior parts of shoulders and chest
Supplies the shoulder and upper limb
Supplies the anterolateral abdominal wall, external genitals, part of the lower limbs: anterior compartment of the thigh, femoral: iliopsoas, pectineus, sartorius and quadraceps
Supplies the buttocks, perineum, posterior thigh and leg and foot, sciatic nerve: largest in the body
Ability to concentrate and executive function, elaborate thought, learning and behavior. The motor cortex near the central sulcus utilises information to carry out movements.
Primary auditory cortex that is important for interpreting sounds and language heard. The hippocampus is located in this lobe which is important for formation of memories.
The primary visual cortex receives information from the retinas and interpreting visual stimuli.
Processing sensory information such as touch, pain and pressure. The somatosensory cortex is located in this lobe.
Limbic system
Group of structures involved in emotional behavior, declarative memory and olfaction
Papez Circuit
Emotion interactions between diencephalon and cerebral cortex
Emotion reaches consciousness and conscious thoughts can affect emotions
Learning and formation of new memories
Short term
Long term
Limbic lobe
Emotional regulation and motivation
Autonomic regulation
Hormonal regulation
Memory consolidation
Medial nuclei - interconnected with olfactory system : emotional responses to smell
Central nuclei - interconnected with the hypothalamus : mediate changes in heart rate, peristalsis, gastric secretion, sweating seen with strong emotions
Basolateral nuclei - link between experience of emotions and their expression
Short term maintenance of information in memory
Explicit memory involves facts or events
Implicit memory is not directly accessible to consciousness
Episodic memory involves memory for events and ability to learn, store and retrieve information. Includes information about time and place of events
Semantic memory involves knowledge of facts that have been learned. Knowledge about categories of objects like apples and bananas are fruits.
Includes several forms of learning that occur during a performance or task. Skills and habits like driving, swimming and riding a bike
Emotional memory involves a change in behavior towards a stimuli, like seeing a purple jacket and smiling because you remember your grandmother always wearing it in winter
Conditional reflexes is one when a stimulus that can be linked to food, like a dog salivated at the sound of a bell
Major relay station for most special and general sensory impulses from the spinal cord and brain stem
Intermediate mass is the gray matter that joins the right and left halves of the thalamus
Receives reciprocal input for many areas of the cortex
Divisions within the thalamus
External medullary lamina that is in between the Thalamus and Internal capsule that has fibers running in and out
Internal medullary lamina has fibers that divide the thalamus into medial and lateral divisions
Lateral and inferior to the thalamus
Dorsalateral to the hypothalamus
Medial to the internal capsule
Subthalamic nuclei - reciprocal connection with the basal ganglia
Zona incerta - function is largely uncertain, but thought to be an area that stimulates thrist
Major role in homeostasis: that initiates humoral, visceromotor (ANS) and somatic motor (behavioural) responses to homeostatic stimuli
Has 3 functional zones
Lateral and medial zones: extensive connections with the brain stem and telencephalon
The periventricular zone: lies next to teh 3rd ventricle and recieves much of its inputs from the medial and lateral zones
Humoral role
Releases tropic hormones that stimulate the anterior lobe of the pituitary and it synthesises hormones that are stored in the posterior pituitary
Tropic hormones affect the release of another hormone
Release hormones are secreted into the primary capillaries of the median eminance
Then drain into the hypophyseal portal veins that run in the pituitary stalk/infundibulum and into the anterior pituitary
Where they empty into sinusoids among the secretory cells of the pituitary
They modulate the synthesis and release of the pituitary hormones
Hypothalamic control of Homeostasis
Control blood pressure and electrolyte composition by controlling drinking, salt appetite, blood osmolarity, heart rate and stroke volume
Body temperature by controlling metabolic thermogenesis and behaviour
Energy metabolism by regulating eating, digestion and metabolic rate
Emergency response to stress
Hypothalamic interaction with the Limbic system
Regulation of emotional behavioural patterns
Mammillary bodies are considered a part of the limbic system
Receive afferents from the hippocampus and sends efferents to the anterior nucleus of the thalamus via the mammillthalamic tract
Important for wakefulness and for memory
Nucleus accumbens - receives extensive dopaminergic inputs of integral part of the limbic system
Caudate nucleus and Putamen - striatum is the input nuclei to the basal ganglia and receive excitatory input from the cortex and subcortical structures
Globus pallidus - is the output nucleus of the basal ganglia and sending inhibitory projections to the thalamus
Subthalamic nucleus - receives afferent inputs from the cortex and excitatory outputs to the globus pallidus
Substantia nigra - contains dopaminergic neurons that project to the putamen and caudate nucleus
Cranial nerves
Responsible for orientating the head and neck during eye movements
From the red nucleus, it has an important role as an integrator and relay nuclues in the cerebellar circuits
Coordinates muscle group activation for primitive motor behaviour such as orientation of the body to or from a stimulus
Provides motor neurons for controlling the muscles that stabilise the body for posture, where it facilitates activity of extensor muscles and inhibit the flexor muscles.
Nonconscious sensory input and tracts to the equilibrium
Conscious sensory input and tracts the cortex
Autonomic system

Krebs C, Weinberg J, Akesson E. Neuroscience. USA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkin. 2012










Sahil Lutchman
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