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3D Brain Project

-lobes -
by

Naina Kishore

on 8 November 2013

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Transcript of 3D Brain Project

During REM sleep, the body becomes paralyzed. This prevents us from acting-out movements during sleep. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by a loss of paralysis, which can lead to disruptive behavior during sleep. Xi and Luning present a case study of a patient with a lesion in the pons that was accompanied by screaming, thrashing arms, punching, and kicking during violent and vivid dreams. He was successfully treated with anticonvulsants.
Temporal Lobe
The temporal lobe is the location of the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for interpreting sounds
The right temporal lobe controls the left side of the body and vice versa.
Occipital Lobe
Smallest lobe
Primary function is controlling vision and visual processing
Helps us identify different objects that we look at
Helps us differentiate and understand different colors and shapes
Parietal Lobe
Integration of different senses that allows for understanding a single concept
If the parietal lobe is damaged:
Ammonia (Inability to name an object)
Agraphia (Inability to locate the words for writing)
Dyslexia (Problems with reading)
Dyscalculia (Difficulty with doing mathematics)
By: Arturo, Naina, Josie, Tiana
Lobes
Hypothalamus
The Entorhinal cortex is one of the brain's most important memory centers and is located in the medial temporal lobe


Cerebellum
Declarative memory
Spatial Memory
Self-localization
Thalamus
Anatomy of the Human Brain
The Human Brain
Part of the hindbrain; a "bridge" of sensory and motor nerves; contains part of the reticular formation that is involved in sleep
-The only lobe that you can live without!
-Emotions
-Planning
-Parts of Speech
-Problem Solving
-Movement
-Decision Making
-Intelligence
-Attention
Frontal Lobe:
Largest lobe of the brain
You use your frontal lobe everyday.
You use it to make decisions, such as What to eat or drink, and how studying for a test
The frontal lobe is also where our personality is formed
-Most Posterior
-Back of the head
-Vision
-Hallucinations
-Blindness
-Synesthesia
-Inability to see color, motion, or orientation
The part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity.
Pons is a portion of the hind brain that connects the cerebral cortex with the medulla oblongata.
The pons measure around 2 1/2 cm only but we cannot be fooled by its size because something so small is very important part of our brain's pathways.
Lower pons stimulates and controls the intensity of breathing, and the upper pons decreases the depth and frequency of breaths
Pons
Amygdala
An almond-shaped mass of gray matter. It is in each hemisphere of the brain, associated with feelings of fear and aggression and important for visual learning and memory.
People with bipolar disorders are seen to have larger amygdalae, which is why they are gripped by a lot of fear all the time
Activation of the amygdala has been shown to decrease trust (of others)
.
Hunger
Thirst
Body Temperature
Sexual Activity
Blood Pressure
Heart Rate
Shivering
Sleep
Pupil Dilation
Moods
Relaying motor and sensory information
memory
alertness
consciousness
contributes to perception and cognition
Regulating breathing,taste,and autonomic functions
Coordination of voluntary movement
Motor-learning
Balance
Reflex Memory
Posture
Timing
Sequence learning
Fear-Processing
Emotion Processing
Learning
Reward-Processing
Fight or flight response
When you think of the amygdala, you should think of one word, fear. The amygdala is the reason we are afraid of circumstances outside our control. It also controls the way we react to certain stimuli, or an event that causes an emotion, that we see as potentially threatening or dangerous.
The cerebellum is important to the timing of rhythmic movements. A recent neuroimaging study by Brown and colleagues (2006) examined the neural basis of dance and found evidence of cerebellar activity during entrainment(synchronizing timing and movement with musical rhythm).
Interesting Cerebellum facts
Your body movements are synchronized and harmonized by the Cerebellum.
The Cerebellum makes up only 10% of the brain, but holds up to half the neurons in the entire brain.
CASE STUDY
Entorhinal Cortex
The five senses relay information to the hippocampus via the entorhinal cortex, which also transmits messages between the hippocampus and the neocortex.
The Entorhinal Cortex plays a central role in memory. This region processes and combines memories and also utilizes sensory information
It is one of the first areas of the brain to be affected by the plaque buildup of Alzheimer's disease
Association with Damage to
Case Study
About the size of a pearl. It directs a multitude of important functions in the body and it is the control center for many autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system
Aggression
Hypothermia
Hypersomnia
Lethargy
Weight Gain/Loss
Chronic Stress
Case Study
Self-mutilation is a serious condition with many causes. Kuhn and colleagues (2008) describe a patient with severe self-mutilating behavior that followed traumatic brain injury. The patient's medical team used deep brain stimulation of the hypothalamus to successfully treat these symptoms.
Structure deep within the brain stem that receives sensory information from the nervous system and passes it to the cerebral cortex.
The curious case of Phineas Gage, a railway worker in the 1800s. An iron rod passes through his head, and he recovered almost fully in a matter of months! He survived for 12 years before eventually dying of severe seizures. He survived extensive lesions of the brain, undergoing personality changes to the worst.
For three years, little Cameron Mott's life was a nightmarish succession of violent seizures that consumed her days and threatened her life. Finally, doctors told her parents that the way to stop them was to remove right-half of her brain. Rasmussen's syndrome, a condition that causes the destruction of one side of the brain. The solution was radical. It was the right choice.
-Located behind the frontal lobe
-Concerned with:
-touch
-pressure
-temperature
-pain
-texture
-weight
-size
-shape.
-Number Representation
-Vision Spacial
-Understanding of spoken and written languages
-Object Recognition
-Ability to read and write
-Side of head above ears
-Hearing ability
-Memory Acquisition
-Increased Aggressive Behavior
-Short-term Memory Loss
-Face and Object Recognition
-Understanding Language
Case Study
Full transcript