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8th Grade: Civil War

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Jordan Phelps

on 25 April 2016

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Transcript of 8th Grade: Civil War

The Civil War
Reasons for the Civil War
Reasons for the Civil War
Slavery
-Biggest reason ( But not the only reason)
- Abolitionist movement growing
- Country was divided over the
issue (Sectionalism)
- "Southern way of life was
threatened"
States Rights
-Many states in the South believed they had the right to
Nullify,
or not obey, f
ederal laws they didn't like. (i.e; Nullification Crisis)
What started the Civil War?
Slavery?
Yes, but it's more complicated than that...
-The South felt like they were being bullied by Northern States.
Election of 1860
4 Candidates ran for president
Abraham Lincoln
was the Republican Candidate
Southerners were afraid of Lincoln, because he was opposed of slavery
Election of 1860
- Lincoln wins the election with only 39.9% of the popular vote (only 39.9% of the country voted for him)
-Southerners NOT happy
The South Secedes

-Southern states began to
secede
, or withdraw formally from membership in the union.
-
South Carolina was the first.
-
Eventually, 11 States would
Secede
- SC, MISS, FLA, ALA, GA, LA,
TEX, VA, ARK, NC, TENN
- 5 Slave states stayed
with the Union
February 4, 1861
The
Confederate States of America
(CSA) was formed by the first 7 states to secede.
First Capital: Montgomery, AL
(Later moved to Richmond, VA)
President:
Jefferson Davis
of Mississippi
The Southern secession was not recognized by Lincoln & The Union
Warned the CSA that they were on a dangerous path if they did not rejoin the Union
- CSA began seizing Union property in southern states.
- Lincoln wanted to avoid conflict
The War Begins
Fort Sumter
- Island fort in South Carolina
- First shots of the Civil War were fired at Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861
- Confederate Soldiers under
General P. G. T. Beauregard

demanded the Union guards surrender the fort.
April 13 ,
Major Robert Anderson
of the Union surrendered the fort.
When they refused, the Confederates opened fire
The Union troops inside the fort were poorly equiped
The next day, Lincoln asked for 75,000 volunteers to
enlist,
sign up for duty, in the Union Army
The war had officially began
When the news broke to the South, the remaining southern states seceded, starting with Virginia.
Declared war on the "Rebels"
Comparing Sides
Strength
Weakness
Weakness
Strength
- Higher population
- Greater Industry
- More money & supplies
- Navy
- Fighting in south
- Not as good military leadership
- Not all northerners care
- Fighting on home turf
- Strong Military leadership
- "Fighting for a tie"
- Poor Navy
-Fewer soldiers
- Not as much money/resources
UNION
Confederacy
Union Generals
Men Present for Duty in the Civil War

Ulysses S. Grant

Joseph Hooker

Ambrose Burnside

George McClellan

Winfield Scott

Irwin McDowell

George Meade

Robert E. Lee

Nathan Bedford Forrest

“Stonewall” Jackson

George Pickett

James Longstreet

Jeb Stuart

The Confederate Generals

Union Strategy
"Anaconda Plan"
- Winfield Scott's plan to surround the Confederates
-Cut off supply lines
-Control the Mississippi River.
-Capture major cities

William Tecumseh Sherman
Union Flags
Union Uniforms
Confederate Uniforms
Early Battles
Two-theater War
- Civil war was a two-theater war, meaning it was fought in two separate locations.
-Eastern theater (Potomac Campaign)
- Mostly in Virginia, Maryland
- Western Theater (Wilderness Campaign)
-Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, etc.
Early Confederate Wins
- Confederates had a lot of success early in the war
- General's Lee and Stonewall Jackson commanded the Confederate Armies in the East
- Several Union Generals failed early in the War
- Meade, McClellan (x2), Burnside, McDowell and Hooker.
Bull Run
- First major battle
- Virginia, July, 1861
- Union forces were crushed & driven back by Confederates
- General
Thomas 'Stonewall'
Jackson
earns his nickname here.
- "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall!"
- His men reinforced broken lines
April 6-7, 1862
North Leader—
Ulysses S. Grant
,
South-
P.G.T. Beauregard
Confederate troops surprised Union troops
Union troops reorganized and Confederate had to retreat.


Shiloh

Battle of Shiloh taught both sides they had to build fortifications, dig trenches, and send out scouts.
Nearly ¼ of the 100,000 troops died.
September 17, 1862
North Leader—George McClellan
South Leader—Robert E. Lee
Sharpsburg, MD

Antietam
April 30-May 6, 1863
Chancellorsville, VA
North Leader—Joseph Hooker,
South—Robert E. Lee

-Union Army was twice the size of Confederate

- South wins battle but loses “Stonewall” Jackson (Accidentally shot by own men)

-Lee’s best victory
Chancellorsville


- Bloodiest single day of battle ever in U.S. History.
- More casualties than the War of 1812 & Mexican-American War combined! (23,000)
-Battle was a tie, but stopped Lee’s advance in Maryland
Antietam
One of the two major battles in the North
-McClellan was too cautious
-He could have finished off Lee's Army but he was too late
-"Tardy George"
The Tide Turns
Vicksburg
-Most important battle in the western theater.

-Key to controlling the Mississippi River and completing the Anaconda Plan
- Grant's initial assault failed
- Decided to surround and lay
siege
to the city.
-Completely isolated the city (nothing in or out) - Confederates forces to surrender

- Union naval blockade had cut off the South’s trade with Europe.

- Union had split the Confederacy into two parts.

Why Was Vicksburg important?
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Union Commander :General
George Meade
Confederate Commander:
Robert E. Lee
July 1-3, 1863
Casualties: Union-23,049 Confederate-28,063
Winner: Union

Gettysburg
Significance of Gettysburg:
The turning point & most important battle of the war.

Lee went on the offensive and invades the north again.


The Confederates failed to break Union lines for 2 days.
Pickett's Charge
- Failed frontal assault by the confederates.
Lee's biggest mistake of the war.
(Ignored his other generals)


Union wins.
50,000 dead on both sides in 3 days of fighting.
Lee retreats to Virginia.
This would be the last chance for the South to win the war and threaten the North.
Confederates met Union in Gettysburg, PA
Gettysburg Address
One of the most famous American speeches
Lincoln gave it at a memorial service at Gettysburg a few months later.
"Four score and seven years ago....
...government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
Sherman's March to the Sea
General

William "Tecumseh" Sherman

Wins the battle of Atlanta and began his "March to the Sea"
March to the Sea
- General Sherman's famous campaign from Atlanta - Savannah, Georgia
His army destroyed everything in it's path

Total war
Surrender at Appomattox
After reaching Savannah in the Fall of 1864, Sherman
continued through the Carolinas to meet General Grant in Virginia.

April 9, 1865
Lee's army was cornered by Grant and the Union.

Officially surrendered in town of Appomattox Courthouse, VA.
Appomattox Courthouse

Emancipation
Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation
- Executive order created by Lincoln, declaring all slaves in confederacy free.
Lincoln wanted to change the focus of the war to liberating the slaves.
(Hoped it would inspire people to fight)
Massachusetts 54th
All black regiment of Union Soldiers
First time African Americans were allowed to serve as regulars
USS Monitor
and
CSS Virginia
Ironclads
First ever battle between 2 Ironclad warships
Ironclad
- a 19th-century warship with armor plating.
CSS Virginia attempted to break through blockade
USS Monitor forces Virginia to retreat
Emancipated
- freed from social restrictions
The Death of Lincoln
Reconstruction
-May of 1865 - Remaining Confederate forces surrender.
-Civil War ends.
-Over 620,000 Americans died in the war (over 2/3 from disease)
-50,000 survivors return home as amputees
April 14, 1865
Lincoln and his wife Mary see the play "Our American Cousin" at
Ford's Theater
in Washington, DC.
At 10:13 p.m., during the third act of the play,
John Wilkes Booth
shoots the president in the head. Doctors attend to the president in the theater then move him to a house across the street.
"Sic Semper Tyrannis!"
Lincoln, first president to be assassinated.
Booth was found several days later by Union Soldiers in a barn and was shot.
Vice
President
Andrew Johnson
sworn in as President
Reconstruction
- the period of rebuilding the South from 1865-1877.
Southern States occupied by Union soldiers (martial law)
Soldiers sent to enforce newly passed Amendments
13th Amendment
Abolished slavery everywhere in U.S.
14th Amendment
-African Americans became citizens
-States must enforce laws (equal protection of rights)
15th Amendment
-African Americans could now vote
Reconstruction Amendments
http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/reconstruction
Republican Party
- New party formed by several smaller parties; mostly anti-slavery.
- Some believe states rights was just as big a factor as slavery in causing the war. Was it?
- Talks of secession grow.
What started the Civil War?
Slavery
Main Causes
States Rights
Sectionalism
Election of 1860
Secession
-
Lincoln wins election.
- Almost no one in the South voted for him
-Union soldiers find Lee's battle plans.
-McClellan knew where Lee's army was going how to beat them.
"Here is a paper with which if I cannot whip Bobbie Lee,
I will be willing to go home."

-George McClellan to Abraham Lincoln
http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/battle-of-antietam#
http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/american-civil-war-history/videos/the-battle-of-gettysburg
http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/american-civil-war-history/videos/shermans-terrifying-tactics
http://www.history.com/topics/abraham-lincoln-assassination
http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/american-civil-war-history/videos/surrender-at-appomattox-courthouse
John Wilkes Booth
Famous American actor that assassinated Abraham Lincoln.
Southern Sympathizer
: A Northerner who supported the Confederacy
Originally planned to kidnap Lincoln a month earlier; failed.
They day he killed Lincoln, other "co-conspirators" were supposed to kill the vice president, the secretary of state, the secretary of war, and Ulysses S. Grant; all failed.
Lincoln offered Southern states
amnesty
; a group pardon.
After Lincoln died,
Radical Republicans
in Congress were much more hard on the South.
http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/reconstruction
Reconstruction
The Freedmen's Bureau
Freedmen's Bureau
: Government agency created to help newly freed African Americans adjust to life after slavery.
Provided African Americans and poor whites food, housing and medical aid; established schools, offered legal assistance, and provided jobs.
Popular Sovereignty
Full transcript